High Court of Lagos State
(Civil Procedure) Rules 2012
Order 1
Citation, Application and Interpretation of High Court of Lagos State (Civil Procedure) Rules 2012
1.
Citation and Application
2.
Interpretation of terms
Order 2
Place of institution and trial of suits
1.
Suit relating to land and
2.
Suits for recovery of penalties,
3.
Suits upon Contract
property destrained or siezed
forfeitures and actions against
Public Officer.
4.
Other suits
5.
Suits commenced in wrong
Judicial Division
Order 3
Form and Commencement of Action
1.
Proceeding which must be
2.
Mode of beginning Civil
3.
Form of Writ
begun by Writ
Proceedings.
4.
Form of Writ for service out of
5.
Proceedings which may be
6.
Construction of enactment on
Nigeria
begun by Originating Summons
which a right depends
7.
Discretion of the Judge
8.
Form of Originating Summons
9.
Service outside Lagos State
10.
Originating Process to be tested
11.
Screening for ADR
by its date
Order 4
Indorsement of Claim and of Address
1.
Indorsement
2.
Indorsement to show
3.
Probate Actions
representative capacity
4.
What is indorsed where the
5.
Ordinary account
6.
Indorsement of address by Claimant
claim is liquidated
or by Legal Practitioner
7.
Indorsement of address
8.
Originating Process without an
address or with fictitious
address
Order 5
Effect of Non-Compliance
1.
Non- Compliance with Rules
2.
Application to set aside for
irregularity
Order 6
Issue of Originating Process
1.
Preparing Originating Process
2.
Sealing of originating Process
3.
What is to be done after sealing
4.
Copies to be served
5.
Probate actions: affidavit with
6.
Lifespan of Originating Process
Originating Process
7.
Indorsement of renewal
8.
Loss of Originating Process
9.
Concurrent Originating Process
10.
Concurrent Originating Process
for service within and out of
jurisdiction
Order 7
Service of Originating Process
1.
By whom service is to be
2.
Service of Originating Process,
3.
When Originating Process need not
effected
etc. How effected
be served personally
4.
Mode of service when not
5.
Substituted service
6.
Persons under legal disability
personal
7.
Prisoners or Detainees
8.
Partners
9.
Corporation or Company
10.
Foreign Corporation or
11.
Local Agent of Principal who is
12.
Where violence is threatened
Company
out of jurisdiction
13.
Proof of service generally
14.
Expenses of service
15.
Time of service on certain days
16.
Recording of service
Order 8
Service out of Nigeria and service of Foreign Process
1.
Cases where service of
2.
Agreement as to service
3.
Service abroad by letter of request
Originating Process, etc, are
allowed out of Nigeria
4.
Where leave is granted or not
5.
Service of foreign Processes
6.
Inapplicability of Rule 4
required
7.
Service on behalf of foreign
8.
Substituted service of foreign
tribunals
process
Order 9
Appearance
1.
Mode of entry of Appearance
2.
Defendant appearing in person
3.
Fictitious address
or represented by Legal
Practitioner
4.
Defendants appearing through
5.
Late Appearance
6.
Intervener in Probate matters
same Legal Practitioner
7.
Recovery of Land
8.
Landlord Appearing
9.
Person under legal disability
appearing
10.
Tenant
Order 10
Default of Appearance
1.
Default of appearance by person
2.
Default of appearance generally
3.
Liquidated demand
under legal disability
4.
Liquidated demand: several
5.
Judgement in default of
6.
Several defendants
defendants
appearance
7.
Detention of goods, damages
8.
Recovery of land
9.
Mense profit
and liquidated demand
10.
Judgment for costs: upon
11.
Setting aside Judgement
12.
Default of appearance in actions not
payment, satisfaction etc
otherwise specifically provided for
13.
Compulsory Service
Order 11
Summary Judgment
1.
Where Claimant believe there is
2.
Delivery of extra copies
3.
Service
no defence
4.
Where Defendant intends to
5.
Where Defendant has a good
6.
Where there are several defendants
defend
defence, or has no good defence
or has good defence to part of
the claim
Order 12
Application for Account
1.
Order for Account
2.
Application how made
3.
Account may be taken by a Judge
or Referee
Order 13
Parties Generally
1.
Persons claiming jointly or
2.
Action in name of wrong
3.
Misjoinder and Counter-Claim
severally
Claimant
4.
Any person may be joined as
5.
Action in name of wrong
6.
Defendant need not be interested in
Defendant
defendant
all the reliefs sought
7.
Joinder of persons severally or
8.
Claimant in doubt as to person
9.
Persons under legal disability
jointly and severally liable
from whom redress is to be
sought
10.
Guardian
11.
Trustees, Executors, etc may be
12.
Numerous Persons
sued as representing the Estate
13.
Representation of persons or
14.
Power to approve compromise
15.
Where there is no personal
classes of persons in certain
representative
proceedings
16.
Proceedings not defeated by
17.
Application to add or strike out
18.
Where Defendant is added
Misjoinder or Non-joinder
a party
19.
Third Parties may be joined by
20.
Appearance by Third party
21.
Default by Third party
any of the parties
22.
Subsequent Third party
23.
Claim against Co-Defendant
24.
Actions by and against Firms
25.
Disclosure of Partners name
26.
Appearance of Partners
27.
Application of Rules to actions
between co-Partners
28.
Persons trading as firms
29.
Action not abated where cause
30.
Order to carry on Proceedings
of action survives
31.
In case of assignment, creation
32.
Application to discharge Order
33.
By persons under disability having
or devolution of estate or title
by person under disability
no guardian
having a guardian
34.
Acts may be done by Legal
practitioner or agent
Order 14
Joinder of Causes of Action
1.
All causes of action may be
2.
Recovery of Land
3.
Executor and Administrator
joined
4.
Claims by joint Claimants
Order 15
Pleadings
1.
Filing of Pleadings
2.
Pleading to state material facts
3.
Particulars to be given where
and not evidence
necessary
4.
Further and better statement or
5.
Denial
6.
Conditions Precedent
particulars
7.
Defence and reply: facts to be
8.
Pleadings to be consistent
9.
Joinder of issues
specifically pleaded
10.
Effect of documents to be stated
11.
Notice
12.
Implied contract or relationship
13.
Presumption of law
14.
Stated or settled account
15.
Technical objection
16.
Striking out of pleadings
17.
Defamation
18.
Where pleadings discloses no
reasonable cause of action
19.
Close of pleadings.
Order 16
Statement of Claim
1.
Statement of Claim
2.
Claim beyond indorsement
Order 17
Defence and Counter-Claim
1.
Statement of Defence
2.
Evasive denial
3.
Denials generally
4.
Persons in representative
5.
Pleadings to damages
6.
Set-off and Counter-Claim
capacity
7.
Title of Counter-Claim
8.
Claim against persons not party
9.
Appearance by added parties
10.
Defence to Counter-Claim
11.
Discontinuance of the
12.
Judgment for balance
Claimant’s Claim
13.
Grounds of defence after action
14.
Further Defence or Reply
15.
Concession to Defence
brought
16.
Defence to Originating
Summons
Order 18
Reply
1.
Filing of Reply
2.
Reply to Counter-Claim
Order 19
Admissions
1.
Notice of Admissions
2.
Notice to admit document
3.
Notice to admit facts
4.
Judgment or Order upon
4.
Cost of notice where documents
admission of facts
unnecessary
Order 20
Default of Pleading
1.
Claim for debt or liquidated
2.
Several Defendants: default of
3.
Damages and Detention of goods
demand
one
4.
Default of one or more
5.
Debt or damages and detention
6.
Recovery of Land
Defendants
of Goods or damages
7.
Claim for Mense profits, arrears
8.
Defence to part of Claim only
9.
Default of Defence
or damages
10.
One of several Defendants in
11.
Default of Third party
12.
Setting aside Judgement by default
default.
Order 21
Payment into and out of Court
1.
Payment into and out of Court
2.
Claimant may take out money
3.
Money remaining in Court
4.
Several Defendants
5.
Counter-Claim
6.
Persons under legal disability
7.
Payment into and withdrawal of
Money from Court.
Order 22
Proceedings in lieu of demurrer
1.
Demurrer abolished
2.
Points of Law may be raised by
Pleading
Order 23
Withdrawal or Discontinuance
1.
Claimant may withdraw or
2.
Withdrawal by Consent
discontinue before defence
Order 24
Amendment
1.
Amendment of Originating
2.
Application
3.
Amendment of Originating Process
Process and Pleadings
4.
Failure to amend after Order
5.
Filing and service of amended
6.
Date of Order and amendment to be
process
displayed
7.
Clerical mistakes and accidental
8.
General power to amend
omissions
Order 25
Case Management Conference and Scheduling
1.
Case Management Notice
2.
Agenda
3.
Time-Table
4.
Report
5.
Sanctions
6.
ADR directives and sanctions
7.
Setting aside of Judgement
8.
Management
Order 26
Discovery and Inspection
1.
Discovery by Interrogatories
2.
Form 19
3.
Corporation or companies
4.
Objection to interrogatories
5.
Affidavit in Answer
6.
Form 20
7.
Order to answer or answer
8.
Application for discovery of
9.
Processes filed after Case
further
documents
Management Conference.
10.
Verification of Business Books
11.
Attachment of Party after
12.
Using answers to interrogatories at
service on Legal Practitioner
trial
14.
Discovery against Sheriff
15.
Person under Legal disability
Order 27
Issues, Inquiries, Accounts and references to Referees
1.
Issues of Fact
2.
Reference to Referee
3.
Instructions to Referee
4.
General Powers of Referee
5.
Evidence
6.
Reports made in pursuance of
reference under order
7.
Special directions as to mode of
8.
Accounts to be verified by
9.
Mode of vouching accounts
taking account
affidavit
10.
Surcharge
11.
Accounts and inquiries to be
12.
Just Allowances
numbered
13.
Expediting Proceedings in case
of undue delay
Order 28
Special Case
1.
Special case by consent
2.
Special case by Order before
3.
Special case to be signed
Trial
4.
Application to set down where a
5.
Agreement to payment of
6.
Application of Order
person under disability is a party
money and costs
Order 29
Cause Lists
1.
List of causes for hearing
2.
Case Management and Weekly
3.
Public holiday
Cause list
4.
Judge unable to sit
5.
Notice Boards
Order 30
Proceedings at Trial
1.
Non-appearance of both parties
2.
Default of appearance by
3.
Default of appearance by Claimant
Defendant at Trial
4.
Judgement by default may be
5.
Adjournment of Trial
6.
Times of commencement and
set aside on terms
termination of Trial
7.
Order of Proceeding
8.
Burden of proof by party to
9.
Documentary evidence
begin.
10.
Additional Witness
11.
Close of case by parties
12.
Exhibits during Trial
13.
Written address by Party
14.
Written address by the other
15.
Written address of Party beginning
beginning
party
16.
Reply on Points of Law
17.
Custody of Exhibit after Trial
18.
Office copy of list of exhibit
19.
Indolent prosecution
Order 31
Filing of Written Address
1.
Application
2.
Content of a Written Address
3.
Summation of address
4.
Oral Argument
5.
Copies of written address
Order 32
Evidence Generally
1.
Facts how proved
2.
Particular facts
3.
Limitation of medical and expert
evidence
4.
Limitation on use of
5.
Revocation and variation
6.
Certified True copies admissible in
documentary evidence
evidence
7.
Examination of witness abroad
8.
Form of order for examination
9.
Order for attendanceof personto
of witness abroad
produce document
10.
Disobedience to order for
11.
Expenses of persons ordered to
12.
Contempt of Court
attendance
attend
13.
Examination of witness
14.
Deposition not to be given in
15.
Oaths
evidence without consent or by
leave of a judge
16.
Attendance of witness under
17.
Practice as to taking of evidence
18.
Special direction as to taking
subpoena for examination
at any stage of cause or matter
evidence
19.
Evidence in proceedings
20.
Form of Praecipe of a subpoena
21.
Form of Subpoena
subsequent to trial
22.
Subpoena for attendance of
23.
Corrections of errors in
24.
Personal service of Subpoena
Witness of witness in Chambers
Subpoena
25.
Duration of Subpoena
26.
Action to perpetuate testimony
27.
Examination of witnesses to
perpetuate Testimony
28.
Such action not to be set down
for Trial
Order 33
Affidavits
1.
Evidence on motions, etc
2.
Title of Affidavit
3.
Use of defective affidavit
4.
Special time for filing affidavits
5.
Affidavit in support of ex-parte
6.
Notice of intention to use affidavit
applications
7.
Alterations in accounts to be
8.
Exhibits
9.
Certificate of exhibit
initialled
10.
Application of Evidence Act
Order 34
Non-Suit
1.
Power of Court to non-suit
2.
Non-suit where no leave
reserved
Order 35
Judgment, Entry of Judgment
1.
Delivery of judgment at or after
2.
Date of judgment pronounced in
3.
Date of judgment directed to to be
trial
court
entered
4.
Judge may direct time for
5.
Time to be stated for doing any
6.
Judgment by consent where
payment or performance and
act Memorandum to be indorsed
defendant appears by a Legal
interest
Practitioner
7.
Judgment by consent where
defendant has no Legal
Practitioner
Order 36
Drawing up of orders
1.
Date of Order when drawn
2.
Orders that need not be drawn
3.
Form of Order
up
Order 37
Transfers and Consolidation
1.
Order transferring proceedings
2.
Payment of filing fees
3.
Duties of Registrar
to High Court
4.
Directions
5.
Party failing to attend
6.
Construction
7.
Consolidation of actions
Order 38
Interlocutory Orders, etc
1.
Preservation or interim custody
2.
Early trial of cause
3.
Orderr for sale of perishable goods,
of subject matter of disputed
etc
contract
4.
Detention, preservation or
5.
Sale of property in possession of
6.
Order for recovery of specific
inspection of property, the
Court
property other than land subject to
subject of an action; Inspection
lien, etc.
by Judge
7.
Allowance of income of
8.
Injunction against repetition of
9.
Appointment of a Receiver by way
property pendent lite
wrongful act or for breach of
of equitable execution
contract
10.
Receivers: Security and
11.
Where Receiver appointed in
12.
Fixing days for receiver to leave
Remuneration
Court: adjournment to give
and pass their accounts and pay in
security
balance and neglect of Receiver
13.
Receivers account Form
14.
Delivery of account to the
15.
Consequences of default by a
Registry
Receiver
16.
Passing of Guardian’s accounts
Order 39
Motions and other Applications
1.
Application by motion
2.
Restriction on Rule nisi and
3.
When notice of motion should be
order to show cause
given
4.
Motion on arbitral award
5.
Special leave
6.
Motions may be struck out or
adjourned where necessary notice
not given
7.
Adjournment of hearing
8.
Service of motion with
9.
Account by legal practitioner
Originating Process
10.
Interim Certificate
Order 40
Application for Judicial Review
1.
Cases appropriate for
2.
Joinder of claims for relief
3.
Grant of leave to apply for judicial
application for judicial review
review
4.
Time within which to bring an
5.
Mode of applying for judicial
6.
Statements and affidavits
application
review
7.
Claim for damages
8.
Interlocutory applications
9.
Hearing of application for judicial
review
10.
Persons acting in obedience to
11.
Consolidation of applications
an order of mandamus
Order 41
Jurisdiction of Chief Registrar
1.
Chief Registrar
2.
Business to be transacted by
3.
Chief Registrar may refer matter to
Chief Registrar
the Chief Judge
4.
Appeal from order of Chief
5.
Chief Registrar’s List
6.
Legal Practitioner may represent
registrar
party
7.
Chief registrar’s Certificate
8.
Reference to Judgment, rtc
9.
Form and content of certificate in
cases of accounts and inquiries
10.
When certificate becomes
11.
Taxing of Bill of costs
12.
Discharge or variation of certificate
binding
after lapse of any time
Order 42
Habeas Corpus, Attachment for Contempt
1.
Application: How made
2.
Power to issue order of release
3.
Service of notice
immediately
4.
Copies of affidavits
5.
Service of order to release
6.
Statement and verifying affidavit
7.
Procedure at hearing
8.
Procedure for attachment
9.
Procedure on disobedience of Court
Order
10.
Affidavit in response
11.
Return
Order 43
Interpleader
1.
When relief by interpleader is
2.
Interpleader Summons
3.
Adverse titles of Claimants
granted
4.
When application to be made by
5.
Stay of action
6.
Order upon Summons
a Defendant
7.
Questions of Law
8.
Failure of Claimant to appear,
9.
Costs, etc
or neglect to obey Summons
Order 44
Computation of Time
1.
Rules for computation of Time
2.
Holiday
3.
Time of Service
4.
Court may extend time
Order 45
Miscellaneous Provisions
1.
Days of sitting
2.
Public or Private sittings of the
3.
Office Hours
Court
4.
Day of sittings and long
5.
Vacations
6.
Vacation not reckoned in time for
vacations
pleadings
7.
Recovery of penalties and costs
8.
Publication of Notice
9.
Filing of Documents
10.
How process addresses
11.
No fees where proceedings by
12.
Regulations
Government Department
13.
Savings
Order 46
Arrest of Absconding Defendant
1.
Application
2.
Defendant leaving Nigeria
3.
Warrant to arrest
4.
Bail for appearance or
5.
Deposit in lieu of bail
6.
Committal in default
satisfaction
7.
Cost of subsistence of person
arrested
Order 47
Proceedings in Forma Pauperis
1.
Application
2.
Who may sue or defend in
3.
Conditions to be fulfilled
forma pauperis
4.
Fees and Costs
5.
Procedure to be followed
6.
Revocation of Order,
Discontinuance. Etc
7.
Payment to Legal Practitioners
8.
Duty of Legal Practitioners
9.
Appeals
Order 48
Change of Legal Practitioners
1.
Legal Practitioners to conduct
2.
Application for change or
3.
Service of application by Legal
cause or matter to final
withdrawal of Legal
Practitioners
judgment
Practitioners
Order 49
Costs
1.
Principle to be observed in
2.
Rejection of offer of settlement:
3.
Security for costs
fixing costs
Costs
4.
Security for costs by Claimants
5.
Action founded on judgment or
6.
Bond as security for costs
temporarily within jurisdiction
bill of exchange
7.
Cost at discretion of Court
8.
Costs out of fund or property
9.
Stay of proceedings till payment of
cost
10.
Stage of proceedings at which
11.
When cost follows event
12.
Matters to be taken into account in
costs to be dealt with
exercising discretion
13.
Costs arising from misconduct
14.
Personal liability of Legal
15.
Taxation of costs
or neglect
Practitioners for costs
16.
Notice to other party
17.
Power of taxing officer
18.
Supplementary powers of taxing
officer
19.
Extension of time
20.
Power of taxing officer where
21
Mode of beginning Proceedings for
party liable to be paid and to
Taxation
pay costs
22.
Provisions as to bills of costs
23.
Provisions as to taxation
24.
Scale of costs
Proceedings
25.
Certificate of taxing officers
26.
Fees of taxation
27.
Application for review
28.
Application by Summons
Order 50
Business in Chambers
1.
Representation in Chambers
2.
Matters to be disposed of in
3.
Evidence upon applications for
Chambers
appointment of Guardians and for
maintenance
4.
Guardian with reference to
5.
Further consideration of matter
6.
Notes of proceedings in Chambers
proceedings in Chambers
originating in Chambers
7.
Drawing up and entry of orders
8.
Costs
9.
Decisions given in Chambers, how
made in Chambers
set aside or varied
Order 51
Foreclosure and Redemption
1.
Originating summons for
2.
Civil Forms for foreclosure and
3.
Service and execution of Judgment
foreclosure and redemption
redemption
Order 52
Summons to proceed with account and inquiries after judgment
1.
Bringing in Judgment etc,
2.
Summons to proceed with
3.
Settling Deed where parties differ
directing accounts and inquiries
accounts and inquiries:
Directions
4.
Where service of notice of
5.
Non-service of notice of
6,.
Documents: Copies for use of
Judgment or Order may be
Judgment or Order: Stoppage of
Judge
dispensed with
Proceedings
7.
Entry in Summons Book
Order 53
Summary proceedings for possession of landed property occupied by squatters or without the owner’s consent
1.
Application of this Order
2.
Proceedings to be brought by
3.
Affidavit
Originating summons
4.
Service of Originating
5.
Application by Occupier to be
6.
Order for possession
Summons
made a party
7.
Writ of possession
8.
Setting aside of Order
Order 54
Stay of execution or proceedings pending appeal
1.
Stay pending appeal
2.
Compilation of records
3.
Court may grant or refuse order for
stay
4.
Formal Order to be drawn up
Order 55
Proceedings in Revenue Matters
1.
Application
2.
Revenue Court
3.
Commencement
4.
Further information
5.
Payment into Court
6.
Filing of an answer
7.
Reply
8.
Hearing
9.
Orders at hearing
10.
Durations
11.
Default of Answer
12.
Non-appearance of parties
13.
Proceedings under other
14.
Interpretation
Provisions
Order 56
Fast Track Procedure
1.
Objective
2.
Cases qualified for Fast Track
3.
Marking and Payment of Filing
Fees
4.
Service of Originating Process
5.
Filing of Defence and Reply
6.
Applying for Case management
Conference
7.
Time limited for Case
8.
Trial Directions
9.
Variation of Trial Directs
Management Conference
10.
Enforcement of Trial Directs
11.
Application to be made
12.
Trial from day to day
timeously
13.
Adjournments
14.
Period for Trial and Address
15.
Delivery of Judgment
Order 57
Probate and Administration
1.
Petitions to be made to the
2.
Preservation
3.
Personal Application
Probate Registrar
4.
Application for grants through
5.
Further enquires by Judge
6.
Oath in support of grant
Legal Practitioners
7.
Grant in additional name
8.
Additional evidence for grant
9.
Notice to other persons
10.
Grants where deceased is
11.
Grant to Attorney
12.
Grants on behalf of minors
domiciled outside the state
13.
Grant where minor is co-
14.
Grants in case of mental or
15.
Notice of application to State
executor
physical incapacity
16.
Accounts to be filed
17.
Penalty for intermeddling
18.
Evidence of foreign Law
19.
Amendment or revocation of
20.
Address for service within
grant
Jurisdiction
Order 58
Grant of Probate or Letters of Administration with Will
1.
Deposit of Will
2.
Custody of Will
3.
Will to be given out with Order of
Court
3.
Examination of Will as to due
5.
Evidence as to due execution of
6.
Proof of due execution where
execution
Will
attesting witnesses are dead
7.
Evidence as to terms, condition
8.
Attempted revocation of Will
9.
Affidavit as to due execution
and date of execution of Will
10.
Will of Blind or illiterate
11.
Interlineations, erasures and
12.
Documents referred to, annexed or
Testator
obligations in Wills
attached to a will
13.
Executors dying or not
14.
Marking of Wills
15.
Production of Testamentary papers
appearing to prove Will
16.
Judge may order production
17.
Examination in respect of
18.
Notice to Executor to come in and
purported testamentary papers
prove or renounce probate
19.
Liability for intermeddling
20.
Engrossment of Will
21.
Grants to attesting witnesses
before grant
22.
Right of assignee to a grant
23.
Order of priority of grant
24.
Grants to successor of beneficiary
25.
Renunciation of probate
26.
Resealing
27.
Citations
28.
Citation to accept or refuse
29.
Citation to propound a Will
grant
Order 59
Granting Letters of Administration without Will
1.
Letters of Administration
2.
Declaration of value of personal
3.
Administration Bond
4.
Guarantee
5.
Assignment of Bond
6.
Inquiries before grant
7.
Administration Summons
8.
Grant of Administration in
9.
Court may appoint Administrator
special circumstances
10.
Remuneration of Administrator
11.
Securing and leaving
12.
Addition of personal representative
administering estate of foreign
National
13.
Grant where two or more
14.
Joinder of Administration
15.
Grant under other enactment
persons entitled in same degree
16.
Grant of Special Administration
17.
Election to redeem life interest
18.
Notice to prohibit grant; Caveats
19.
Grants to be assigned by
Probate Registrar
Order 60
Proceedings in Probate and administration Actions
1.
Form of Suits
2.
Capacity of Claimant
3.
Service outside Nigeria
4.
Defences to be pleaded with
5.
Dispute of Defendants’ interest
6.
Notice of opposition to Will
particular
7.
Inquiry as to outstanding
8.
Discretion to order costs
9.
Originating Summons for reliefs
personal estate
10.
Order for Administration of
11.
Persons to be served
12.
Interference with Trustee’s
Estate and trust
discretion
13.
Judge not bound to order
14.
Orders to be made where no
15.
Application for Order to produce
administration
account or insufficient account
Will
has been rendered
16.
Limited Grants
17.
Grants in respect of perishable
18.
Application to swear to the death of
goods
a person
19.
Applications by Originating
20.
Service of Originating
21.
Mode of Service
Summons
Summons
22.
Application
23.
Interpretation
High Court of Lagos State
(Civil Procedure) Rules 2012
Commencement
In exercise of the powers conferred on me by Section 89 (1) of the High Court Law, Cap H3 Laws of Lagos State 2003 as
amended by High Court (Amendment Law) 2012, and all other powers enabling me in that behalf, I Inumidun Enitan
Akande (Mrs.) OFR, Chief Judge of Lagos State, herby make the following Rules
Preamble
1.
The overriding objectives of these Rules shall be as follows:
(a)
to promote a just determination of every civil proceeding
(b)
to construe these Rules to secure simplicity in procedure, fairness, in administration elimination of
unjustifiable expense and delay, efficient and speedy dispensation of justice
(c)
amicable resolution of disputes by use of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanism
2.
1.
The Court shall further the overriding objectives by actively managing cases Active case management
includes
(a)
mandating the parties to use an (ADR) mechanism where the Court considers it appropriate and
facilitating the use of such procedure
(b)
assisting the parties to settle the whole or part of the case
(c)
fixing timetables or otherwise controlling the progress of the case
(d)
giving directions to ensure that the trial of the case proceeds quickly and efficiently
(e)
requiring the Claimant and his Legal Practitioner, to cooperate with the Court to further the overriding
objectives by complying with the requirement of the Pre-action Protocol to wit:
(i)
that he has made attempts at amicable resolution of the dispute through mediation,
conciliation, arbitration or other dispute resolution options
(ii)
that the dispute resolution was unsuccessful and that by a written memorandum to the
defendants, he set out his claim and options for settlement; and
(iii)
that he has complied as far as practicable, with the duty of full and frank disclosure of all
information relevant to the issues in dispute.
3.
Parties and their Counsel shall help the Court to further the overriding objectives of these Rules
High Court of Lagos State
(Civil Procedure) Rules 2012
Order 1
Citation, Application and Interpretation of High Court of Lagos State (Civil Procedure) Rules 2012
1.
(1)
These Rules may be cited as the High Court of Lagos State (Civil Procedure) Rules 2012
(2)
These Rules shall apply to all civil proceedings in the High Court of Lagos including all part-heard causes
and matters before these Rules came into force in respect of steps to be further taken in such causes and
matters.
(3)
Where a matter arises in respect of which no adequate provisions are made in the Rules, the Court shall adopt
such procedure as will in its view do substantial justice between the parties concerned.
2.
(1)
These Rules shall be interpreted in accordance with the Interpretation Laws, Cap. 14 Laws of Lagos State
2003 or any re-enactment thereof.
(2)
Where in these Rules depositions and affidavits are required to be made, if the deponent does not understand
the English Language such deposition or affidavit shall be made in a language he understands and shall be
accompanied by interpretation thereof in English language.
(3)
In the construction of these Rules, unless there is anything in the subject or context repugnant thereto, the
several words hereinafter mentioned or referred to shall have or include the following meanings:
"Claimant"
shall include a claimant in a counter claim;
"Court"
means the High Court of Lagos State,
"Court process or "process"
include writ of summons, originating summons, originating summons,
originating process, notices, petitions, pleadings, orders, motions,
summons, warrants and all documents or written communication of which
service is required
"Decision"
means any decision of a Court and includes judgments, ruling, decree,
order, conviction, sentence or recommendation;
"Defendant"
shall include a defendant to a counter claim,
"Guardian"
means any person who has for the time being, the charge of or control
over a person under legal disability and includes a person appointed to
institute or defend an action on behalf of any person under legal
disability,
“Law”
means the High Court Law, Cap. H3, Laws of Lagos, 2003 or any re-
enactment thereof,
“Legal Practitioner”
means a legal practitioner or counsel within the meaning of the Legal
Practitioners Act;
"Minor"
means a person who has not attained the age of 18 years
“Originating Process”
means any court process, by which a suit is initiated,
“Persons under Legal Disability”
means person who lack capacity to institute or defend any proceedings by
reason of age, insanity, unsoundness of mind or otherwise,
“Pre-action Protocol”
means steps that parties are required to take before issuing proceedings in
court as set out in Form 01 to these Rules
"Probate action"
means an action for the grant of probate of the will, or letters of
administration of the estate of a deceased person or for the revocation of
such a grant or for a decree pronouncing for or against the validity of an
alleged will, and all other matters incidental to thereto,
“Referee”
means any person who has been appointed by the court to determine any
matter or question or issue of fact in a suit;
"Registrar"
means the Chief Registrar, Deputy Chief Registrar, Assistant Chief
Registrar, Principal Registrar, Senior Registrar, Higher Registrar, or any
other officer acting or performing the functions of a Registrar,
"Registry’’
means the Registry of the High Court of Lagos State in the appropriate
judicial division,
“Statement of case”
as used in Order 25 Rule 6 means the summary of the case of the parties
as contained in the pleadings
"Taxing officer"
means the Chief Registrar or such other officer of the court as the judge
may appoint to tax costs.
3.
The High Court of Lagos State (Civil Procedure) Rules 2004 shall cease to be operational from the commencement
of these new Rules
Order 2
Place of Instituting and Trial of Suits
Subject to the provisions of the law on transfer of suits, the place for trial of any suit shall be regulated as follows:
1.
All suit relating to land or any mortgage or charge on or any interest in land, or any inquiry or damage to land and
actions relating to personal property distrained or seized for any cause, shall be commenced and determined in the
Judicial Division in which the land is situated, or the distrain took place.
2.
All actions for recovery of penalties, forfeitures, and all actions against public officers shall be commenced and tried
in the Judicial Division in which the cause of action arose.
3.
All suits for the specific performance, or upon the breach of any contract, may be commenced and determined in the
Judicial Division in which such contract ought to have been performed or in which the defendant resides or carries
on business.
4.
(1)
All other suits may be commenced and determined in the judicial division in which the defendant resides
or carries on business.
(2)
Where there are several defendants who reside or carry on business in different Judicial Divisions, the suit
may be commenced in any one of those Judicial Divisions subject to any order or direction a Judge may
make or give as to the most convenient arrangement for trial of the suit.
5.
If any suit is commenced in the wrong Judicial Division, it may be tried in that Division unless the Chief Judge
otherwise directs.
Order 3
Form and commencement of action
1.
Subject to the provisions of these rules or any applicable law requiring any proceedings to be begun otherwise than
by writ, a writ of summons shall be the form of commencing all proceedings
a
Where a claimant claims:
(i)
any relief or remedy for any civil wrong or
(ii)
damages for breach of duty, whether contractual, statutory or otherwise. or
(iii)
damages for personal injuries to or wrongful death of any person, or in respect of damage or injury to
any person, or property.
b.
where the claim is based on or includes an allegation of fraud, or
c.
where an interested person claims a declaration.
2.
(1)
All civil proceedings commenced by writ of summons shall be accompanied by:
(a)
statement of claim.
(b)
list of witnesses to be called at the trial,
(c)
written statements on oath of the witnesses except witnesses on subpoena
(d)
copies of every document to be relied on at the trial.
(e)
Pre-action Protocol Form 01
(2)
Where a claimant fails to comply with Rules 2 (1) above, his originating process shall
not be accepted for filling by the Registry
3.
Except in the cases in which any different forms are provided in these Rules, the writ of summons shall be in Form 1
with such modifications or variations as circumstances may require.
4.
A writ of summons to be served out of Nigeria shall be form 2 with such modification or variations as circumstances
may require.
5.
Any person claiming to be interested under a deed, Will, enactment or other written instrument may apply by
originating summons for the determination of any question of construction arising under the instrument and for a
declaration of the rights of the persons interested.
6.
Any person claiming any legal or equitable right in a case where the determination of the question whether he is
entitled to the right depends upon a question of construction of an enactment, may apply by originating summons for
the determination of such question of Construction and for a declaration as to the right claimed.
7.
A Judge shall not be bound to determine any such question of construction if in his opinion it ought not to be
determined on originating summons but may make any such Orders as he deems fit.
8.
(1)
An originating summons shall be in the Forms 3,4 or 5 to these rules, with such variations as circumstances
may require. It shall be prepared by the applicant or his Legal Practitioner, and shall be sealed and filed in the
Registry, and when so sealed and filed shall be deemed to be issued.
(2)
An originating summons shall be accompanied by:
(a)
an affidavit setting out the facts relied upon:
(b)
all the exhibits to be relied upon:
(c)
a written address in support of the application.
(e)
Pre-action Protocol Form 01
(3)
The person filing the originating summons shall leave at the Registry sufficient number of copies thereof
together with the documents in sub-rule (2) above for service on the respondent or respondents.
9.
Subject to the provision of the Sheriffs and Civil Process Act, a writ of summons or other originating process issued
by the court for service in Nigeria outside Lagos State shall be endorsed by the Registrar of the Court with the
following notice
"This summons (or as the case may be) is to be Served out of Lagos State of Nigeria and in the …………….
State.”
10.
(1)
The Registrar shall indicate the date and time of presentation for filing on every originating process presented
to him and shall arrange for service thereof to be effected.
(2)
An originating process shall not be altered after it is sealed except upon application to a Judge.
11.
All Originating Processes shall upon acceptance for filling by the Registry be screened for suitability for ADR and
referred to the Lagos Multi Door Court House or other appropriate ADR institutions or Practitioners in accordance
with the Practice Directions that shall from time to time be issued by the Chief Judge of Lagos State
Order 4
Indorsement of Claim and of Address
1.
Every originating process shall contain the claim, the relief or remedy sought and the full names and address of the
claimant.
2.
Where a claimant sues, or the defendant or any of several defendants is sued in a representative capacity, the
originating process shall state that capacity.
3.
In probate actions the originating process shall whether a claimant claims as creditor, executor, administrator,
beneficiary, next of kin or in any other capacity.
4.
(1)
Where the claim is for debt or liquidated demand only, the originating process shall state the amount claimed
for debt or in respect of such demand with costs and shall further state that the defendant may pay the amount
with costs to the claimant’s Legal Practitioner within the time allowed for appearance and that upon such
payment the Proceedings shall terminate.
(2)
The defendant may notwithstanding payment under this rule, have the costs taxed and if more than one sixth
of the cost shall disallowed, the claimant’s Legal Practitioner shall pay the cost of taxation.
5.
In all cases where a claimant in the first instance desires to have an account taken, the originating process shall so
state.
6.
(1)
A claimant suing in person shall state on the originating process his residential or business address as his
address for service. If he lives and carries on business outside the jurisdiction he shall state an address within
the jurisdiction as his address for Service.
(2)
Where a claimant sues through a Legal Practitioner the Legal Practitioner shall state on the originating
process his chamber’s address as the address for service. If the Legal Practitioner is based outside the
jurisdiction he shall state a chamber’s address within the jurisdiction as his address for service
7.
Where an originating process is to be served on a defendant outside the jurisdiction the process shall state the
address as required in Rule 6.
8.
If the originating process does not state an address for service, it shall not be accepted and if any such address is
illusory, fictitious or misleading the process may be set aside by a Judge on the application of the defendant.
Order 5
Effect of Non-Compliance
1.
(1)
Where in beginning or purporting to begin any proceeding there has by reason of anything done or left
undone, been a failure to comply with the requirements of these rules, the failure shall nullify the
proceedings.
(2)
Where at any stage in the course of or in connection with any proceedings there has by reason of anything
done or left undone been a failure to comply with the requirements as to time, place manner, or form, the
failure shall be treated as an irregularity and may not nullify such step taken in the proceedings. The Judge
may give any direction as he thinks fit to regularise such steps.
(3)
The judge shall not wholly set aside any proceedings or the writ or other originating Process by which they
were begun on the ground that the proceedings were required by any of these rules to be begun by an
originating process other than the one employed.
2.
(1)
An application to set aside for irregularity any step taken in the course of any proceedings may be allowed
where it is made within a reasonable time and before the party applying has taken any fresh step after
becoming aware of the irregularity.
(2)
An application under this rule may be by summons or motion and the grounds of Objection shall be stated in
the summons or notice of motion.
Order 6
Issue of originating process
1.
Originating process shall be prepared by a claimant or his Legal Practitioner, and shall be clearly printed on Opaque
A4 paper of good quality.
2.
(1)
The Registrar shall seal every originating process whereupon it shall be deemed to be issued.
(2)
A claimant or his Legal Practitioner shall, on presenting any originating process for Sealing, leave with the
Registrar as many copies of the process as there are defendants to served and one copy for endorsement of
service on each defendant.
(3)
Each copy shall be signed by the Legal Practitioner or by a claimant where he sues in person and shall be
certificate after verification by the Registrar as being a true copy of the original process filed.
3.
The Registrar shall after sealing an originating process, file it and note on it the date of filing and the number of
copies supplied by a claimant or his Legal Practitioner of service on the defendants. The Registrar shall then make
an entry of the filing the cause book Identify the action with a suit number that may comprise abbreviation of the
Judicial Division, a chronological number and the year of filing.
4.
The Registrar shall promptly arrange for personal service on each defendant of a copy of the originating process and
accompanying documents duly certified as provided by Rule 2 (3) of this order.
5.
The originating process in probate actions shall be accompanied by an affidavit sworn to by a claimant or one of
several claimants verifying the contents of the process.
6
(1)
The life span of every originating process shall be six (6) months.
(2)
If a Judge is satisfied that it has proved impossible to serve an originating process on any defendant within its
life span and a claimant applies before its expiration or renewal of the process, the Judge may renew the
original or concurrent Process for 3 months from the date of such renewal. A renewed originating process
shall be in form 6 with such modifications or variations as circumstances may require.
7.
A Judge may order two renewals in each case strictly for good cause and upon prompt application, provided that no
originating process shall be in force for longer than a total of 12 months. The Registrar shall state the fact, date, and
duration of renewal on every renewed Originating process.
8.
Where an originating process is lost after issue, a Judge, upon being satisfied of the loss and of the correctness of the
process, may order the copy to be filed and sealed in place of the lost originating process.
9.
A claimant may at the issuance of an originating process or at any time during its life span, cause to be issued one or
more concurrent originating processes each to bear the same date as the initial process, marked "CONCURRENT"
and have stated on it the date of issue.
10.
An originating process for service within jurisdiction may be issued and marked as a concurrent original process
with one for service out of jurisdiction and an originating process for service out of the jurisdiction may be issued
and marked as a concurrent originating process with one for service within jurisdiction.
Order 7
Service of Originating Process
1.
(1)
Service of originating process shall be made by a Sheriff, Deputy Sheriff, Bailiff, Special Marshal or other
office of the court. The Chief Judge may also appoint and register any law Chambers, Courier Company or
any other person to serve court processes and such person shall be called process server.
(2)
When a party is represented by a Legal Practitioner service of court process of which personal service is not
required may be made on such Legal practitioner or on a person under his control.
2.
The process server shall serve an originating process by delivering to the party to be served a copy of the process
duly certified as prescribed by Order 6 Rule 2 (3).
3.
No personal service of an originating process shall be required where the defendant has authorized his Legal
Practitioner in writing to accept service and such Legal Practitioner enters appearance.
Provided that such written authority shall be attached to the memorandum of appearance filed by such Legal
Practitioner.
4.
All processes in respect of which personal service is not expressly required by these rules or any applicable law shall
be sufficiently served if left with an adult person resident or employed at the address for service given under Order 4
Rule 6
5.
(1)
Where personal service of an originating process is required by these Rules or otherwise and a Judge is
satisfied that prompt personal service cannot be effected, the Judge may upon application by the claimant
make such order for substituted service as may seem just.
(2)
Every application to the Judge for substituted or other service, or for the substitution of notice for service
shall be supported by an affidavit setting forth the grounds upon which the application is made.
6.
(1)
Where a person under legal disability is a defendant, service on his guardian shall be deemed good and
sufficient personal service, unless a Judge otherwise orders. Provided that personal service on a minor who is
over 16 years of age living independently or doing business is good and sufficient.
(2)
The Judge may order that personal service on a person under legal disability shall be deemed good and
sufficient.
7.
Where a detainee or prisoner is a defendant, service on the head or other officer in charge of the station, facility or
prison where the defendant is, or on an officer of the agency in charge of the station, facility or prison shall be
deemed good and sufficient personal service on the defendant.
8.
Where persons are sued as partners in the name of their firm the originating process shall be served upon any one or
more of the partners at the principal place of business within the jurisdiction or upon any person having control or
management of the partnership business there; and such service shall be deemed good service upon the firm whether
any of the members are out of the jurisdiction or not, and no leave to issue an originating process against them shall
be necessary:
Provided that in the case of a partnership that has been dissolved to the knowledge of the claimant before the
commencement of the action, the originating process shall be served upon every person within the jurisdiction
sought to be made liable.
9.
Subject to any statutory provision regulating service on a registered company, corporation or body corporate, every
originating process or other process requiring personal service may be served on the organization by delivery to a
director, secretary, trustee or other senior, principal or responsible officer of the organization, or by leaving it at the
registered, principal or advertised office or place of business of the organization within the jurisdiction.
10.
When the suit is against a foreign corporation or company within the meaning of section 54 of the Companies and
Allied Matters Act having an office and carrying on business within the jurisdiction, and such suit is limited to a
cause of action which arose within the jurisdiction, the originating process or other documents requiring personal
service may be served on the principal officer or representative of such foreign corporation or company within the
jurisdiction:
Provided that where a foreign company has complied with the provision of Chapter 3 of the Companies and Allied
Matters Act, personal service shall be effected on one of the persons authorized to accept service on behalf of the
said company.
11.
Where a contract has been entered into within the jurisdiction by or through an agent residing or carrying on
business within the jurisdiction on behalf of a principal residing or carrying on business out of the jurisdiction, an
originating process in an action relating to or arising out of such contract may, before the determination of such
agent’s authority or of his business relations with the principal, be served on such agent. A copy of the originating
process shall be sent promptly by the claimant by courier to the defendant at his address out of the jurisdiction.
12.
Where a person to be served, whether alone or in concert with others, resists service or applies or threatens violence
to the process server, the process server may leave the process within the reach of person to be served, and this shall
be deemed good and sufficient service for all purposes.
13.
(1)
After serving any process, the process server shall promptly depose to and file an affidavit setting out the
fact, date, time, place and mode of service, describing the process served and shall exhibit the
acknowledgment of service. Such affidavit shall be prima facie proof of service.
14.
(1)
The party requiring service of any process shall pay in advance all costs and expenses of and incidental to
service.
(2)
The rate for service shall be as directed by the Chief Judge in Practice Directions from time to time.
15.
(1)
Service of originating and other processes, pleadings, notices, summons, orders, and documents whatsoever
shall be effected between the hours of six in the morning and six in the evening.
(2)
Save in exceptional circumstances and as may be authorized by a Judge, service shall not be effected on a
Sunday or on a public holiday.
16.
(1)
A register shall be kept at the Registry in such from as the Chief Judge may direct for recording service of
processes by any process server. The Registrar shall record therein the names of the clamant and defendant,
the method of service, whether personal or otherwise, and the manner used to ascertain that the right person
was served.
(2)
Where any process was not served the cause of failure shall be recorded in the register. Every entry in such
register or certified copy thereof shall be prima facie evidence of the matters stated therein.
Order 8
Service out of Nigeria and Service of Foreign Process
1.
A Judge may allow any Originating Process or other process to be served outside Nigeria where;
(a)
the whole subject matter of the claim is land situated within jurisdiction, or
(b)
any act, deed, will, contract, obligation, or liability affecting land or hereditaments situate within jurisdiction,
is sought to be construed, rectified, set aside or enforced, or
(c)
any relief is sought against any person domiciled or ordinarily resident within jurisdiction, or
(d)
the claim is for the administration of the personal estate of any deceased person, who at the time of his death
was domiciled within jurisdiction or for the execution (as to property situate within jurisdiction)of the trusts
of any written instrument, which ought to be executed according to the law in force in Lagos state, or
(e)
the claim is brought against the defendant to enforce, rescind, dissolve, annul or otherwise affect a contract or
to recover damages or other relief for or in respect of a contract;
(i)
made within jurisdiction, or
(ii)
made by or through an agent residing or carrying on business within jurisdiction on behalf of a
principal residing or carrying on business out of jurisdiction and
(iii)
which by its terms or by implication is to be governed by the applicable law in Lagos State, or parties
have agreed that the court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any claim in respect of such contract, or
is brought against the defendant in respect of a breach committed within jurisdiction, of a contract
wherever made notwithstanding that such breach was preceded or accompanied by a breach out of
jurisdiction which rendered impossible the performance of the contract which ought to have been
performed within jurisdiction.
(f)
the claim is founded on a tort committed within jurisdiction, or
(g)
an injunction is sought as to anything to be done within jurisdiction, or any nuisance within jurisdiction is
sought to be prevented or removed, whether or not damages are sought in respect thereof, or
(h)
any person out of the jurisdiction is a necessary or proper party to an action properly brought against some
other person duly served within jurisdiction, or
(i)
the claim is by a mortgagee or mortgagor in relation to a mortgage of property situate within jurisdiction and
seeks relief of the nature or kind following, that is; sale, foreclosure, delivery of possession by the mortgagor;
redemption, reconveyance, delivery of possession by the mortgagee; but does not seek (unless and expect so
far as permissible under paragraph (e) of this Rule) any judgment or order for payment of any monies due
under the mortgage, or (j) the proceedings relate to a person under legal disability, or (k) the proceedings
relate to probate matters, or
(l)
where any proceedings under any law or rule of court has been instituted by any originating process.
2.
Where parties have by their contract prescribed the mode or place of service, or the person that may serve or the
person who may be served any process in any claim arising out of the contract, service as prescribed in the contract
shall be deemed good and sufficient service.
3.
Where leave is granted to serve an originating process in any foreign country with which no convention in that
behalf has been made, the following procedure may be adopted;
(a)
the process to be served shall be sealed with the seal of the court for service out of Nigeria, and shall be
transmitted to the Solicitor General of the Federation by the Chief Registrar, together with a copy translated
into the language of that country if not English, and with a request for its further transmission to the
appropriate authority in that country. The request shall be in Form 7 with such modifications or variations as
circumstances may require;
(b)
a party wishing to serve a process under this rule shall file a praecipe in Form 8 with such modifications or
variations as circumstances may require;
(c)
a certificate, declaration, affidavit or other notification of due service transmitted through diplomatic
channels by a court or other appropriate authority of the foreign country, to the court, shall be deemed good
and sufficient proof of service;
(d)
where a certificate, declaration, affidavit or other notification transmitted as aforesaid states that efforts to
serve a process have failed, a Judge may, on an ex-parte application, order substituted service whereupon the
process and a copy as well as the order for substituted service shall be sealed and transmitted to the Solicitor
General of the Federation together with request in Form
9 with such modifications or variations as
circumstances may require;
Provided that notwithstanding the foregoing provision a claimant may with leave of Judge serve any
originating process by courier.
(e)
Nothing herein contained shall in any way affect any power of a Judge in cases where lands, funds, chooses
in action, rights or property within the jurisdiction are sought to be dealt with or affected. The Court may,
without assuming jurisdiction, over any person out of the jurisdiction, cause such Person to be informed of
the nature or existence of the proceedings with a view to such personating an opportunity of claiming,
opposing or otherwise intervening.
4.
(1)
Where leave is granted or is not required in a civil suit and it is desired to serve any process in a foreign
country with which a Convention in that behalf has been made, the following procedure shall, subject to any
special provision contained in the Convention, be adopted:
(a)
the party desiring such service shall file in the registry a request in Form 10 with such modifications or
variations as circumstances may require and the request shall state the medium through which it is desired
that service shall be effected, either;
(i)
directly through diplomatic channels or
(ii)
through the foreign judicial authority;
(b)
the request shall be accompanied by the original document and a translation thereof in the language of the
country in which service is to be effect, certified by or on behalf of the person making the request, and a copy
of each for every person to be served and any further copies which the Convention may require (unless the
service is required to be made on a Nigerian subject directly through diplomatic channels in which case the
translation and copies thereof need not accompany the request unless the Convention expressly requires that
they should do so);
(c)
the documents to be served shall be sealed with the seal of the Court for use out of the jurisdiction and shall
be forwarded by the Chief Registrar to the Permanent Secretary, Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs for
onward transmission to the foreign country;
(d)
an official certificate, transmitted through the diplomatic channel by the foreign judicial authority, or by a
Nigerian diplomatic agent to the Court, establishing the fact and the date of the service of the document, shall
be deemed to be sufficient proof of service within the requirements of these Rules.
(2)
A Judge, in granting leave to serve a process out of jurisdiction under this order, may upon Request therefore
in appropriate cases direct that courier shall be used by the party effecting service.
5.
Where in any civil or commercial matter pending before a court or tribunal of a foreign country a Letter of Request
from such court or tribunal for service on any person or citation in such matter is transmitted to the court by the
Lagos State Attorney-General with intimation that it is desirable that effect be given to the same, the following
procedure shall be adopted;
(a)
the letter of request for service shall be accompanied by a translation in the English Language, and by two
copies of the process or citation to be served, and two copies thereof in English Language;
(b)
service of the process or citation shall be effect by a process server unless a Judge otherwise directs;
(c)
such service shall be effect by delivering to and leaving with the person to be served one copy of the process
or citation to be served, and one copy of the translation thereof in accordance with the rules and practice of
the Court regulating service;
(d)
after service has been affect by the process serve he shall file an affidavit of service in which he shall furnish
particulars of changes for the cost of effecting the service. The affidavit shall be transmitted to the Chief
Registrar with one copy of the process annexed;
(e)
the Chief Registrar shall examine and verify the process server’s particulars of charges and approve it or
approve some lesser figure, whereupon the Chief Judge shall forward to be Attorney- General a letter of
request for service, the approved amount for service, evidence of service and a certificate appended to it.
6.
Ruled 4 of this Order shall not apply to or render invalid, defective or insufficient any otherwise valid or sufficient
mode of service in any foreign country with which a Convention has been made, provided that no mode of service
expressly excluded by the Convention shall be allowed.
7.
Where in any civil suit pending before a court or tribunal in a foreign country with which a Convention in that
behalf has been made, request for service of any process or document on any person within the jurisdiction is
received by the Chief Judge from the appropriate authority in that country, the following procedure shall, subject to
any special provisions in the convention, be adopted;
(a)
the process server shall deliver the original or a copy thereof, along with a copy of its translation to the
to the party to be served;
(b)
the process served shall submit the particulars of the costs and expenses of service to the Chief Registrar
who shall certify the amount payable in respect of the service;
(c)
the Chief Registrar shall transmit to the appropriate foreign authority a certificate establishing the fact and
date of service, or indicating reasons for failure to serve, and also notify the authority as to the amount
certified under paragraph (b) of this rule.
8.
In appropriate cases, upon application, a Judge may order substituted or other service of the foreign process.
Order 9
Appearance
1.
(1)
A defendant served with an originating process shall, within the period prescribed in the process for
appearance, file in the registry the original and copy of duly completed and signed memorandum of
appearance as in Form 11 with such modifications or variations as circumstances may require.
(2)
On receipt of the Memorandum of Appearance, the Registrar shall make entry thereof and stamp the copy
with the seal showing the date he received it and return the sealed copy to the person making the appearance.
(3)
A defendant entering appearance shall not later than
7 days thereafter serve a sealed copy of the
memorandum of appearance on a claimant’s Legal Practitioner or on the claimant if he sues in person.
2.
(1)
A defendant appearing in person shall state in the memorandum of appearance an address for service which
shall be within Lagos State.
(2)
Where a defendant appears by a Legal Practitioner, the Legal Practitioner shall state in the memorandum of
appearance his place of business and an address for service which shall be within Lagos state, and where any
such Legal Practitioner is only the agent of another Legal Practitioner he shall also insert the name and place
of business of the principal Legal Practitioner.
3.
The Registrar shall not accept any memorandum of appearance which does not contain an address for service. If any
such address is illusory, fictitious or misleading, the appearance may be set aside by a Judge on the application of a
claimant.
4.
If two or more defendants in the same action appear through the same Legal Practitioner the memorandum of
appearance shall include the names of all defendants so appearing
5.
If a defendant files an appearance after the time prescribed in the originating process, he shall pay to the court an
additional fee of N200.00 (Two hundred naira) for each day of default. If the defendant appears late but within the
time prescribed for filing his defence, he shall file his defence within that time.
6.
In probate matters any person not named in the originating process may intervene and appear in the matter on filing
an affidavit showing his interest in the estate of the deceased.
7.
Any person not named as a defendant in an originating process for recovery of land may with leave of a Judge
appear and defend, on filing an affidavit showing that he is in possession of the land either by himself or through his
tenant.
8.
Any person appearing to defend an action for the recovery of land as landlord, in respect of property of which he is
in possession only through his tenant, shall state in his appearance that he appears as landlord.
9.
A person under legal disability shall enter an appearance by his guardian.
10.
In this order the word "Tenant" includes a sub-tenant or any person occupying any premises whether on payment of
rent or otherwise.
Order 10
Default of appearance.
1.
Where no appearance has been entered for a person under legal disability, a claimant shall apply to a Judge for an
order that some person be appointed guardian for such defendant and when appointed the person may appear and
defend. The application shall be made after service of the originating process. Notice of the application shall be
served on the person intended to be appointed the guardian of the defendant.
2.
Where any defendant fails to appear, a claimant may proceed upon default of appearance under the appropriate
provisions of these rules upon proof of service of the originating process.
3.
Where the claim in the originating process is a liquidated demand and the defendant or all of several defendants fail
to appear, a claimant may apply to a Judge for judgment for the claim on the originating process or such lesser sum
and interest as a Judge may order.
4.
Where the claim in the originating process is a liquidated demand and there are several defendants of whom one or
more appear to the process and another or others fail to appear, a claim may apply to a Judge for judgment against
those who have not appeared and may execute the judgment without prejudice to his right to proceed with the action
against those who have appeared.
5.
Where the claim in the originating process is for pecuniary damages, or for detention of goods with or without a
claim for pecuniary damages, and the defendant or all of several defendants fail to appear, a claimant may apply to a
Judge for judgment. The value of the goods and the damages or the damages only as the case may be shall be
ascertained in such manner and subject to the filing of such particulars as a Judge may direct before judgment in
respect of that part of the claim.
6.
Where the claim in the originating process is as in Rule 5 of this Order and there are several defendants one or some
of whom appear while another or others do not appear, a claimant may apply for judgment against the defendant (s)
failing to appear. The value of the goods and the damages or the damages only as the case may be shall ascertained
in such manner and subject to the filing of such particulars as a Judge may direct before judgment in respect of that
part of the claim.
7.
Where the claim in the originating process is for pecuniary damages or for detention of goods with or without a
claim for pecuniary damages and includes a liquidated demand and any of the defendants fail to appear, a claimant
may apply to a Judge for judgment. The value of the goods and the damages, or damages only as the case may be
shall be ascertained in such manner and subject to the filing of such particulars as a Judge may direct before
judgment in respect of that part of the claim.
8.
If no appearance is entered within the time prescribed in the originating process in a claim for recovery of land or if
appearance is entered but the defence is limited to part only, a claimant may apply to a Judge for judgment stating
that the person whose title is asserted in the originating process shall recover possession of the land, or of that part of
it to which the defence does not apply.
9.
Where in an originating process for recovery of land a claimant claims mesne profits, arrears of rent, damages for
breach of contract or wrong or injury to the premises, he may apply for judgment as in Rule 8 of this Order for the
land, and may proceed to prove the other claims.
10.
In any case to which Rules 3-8 of this Order do not apply and the defendant or all of several defendants fail to
appear, but by reason of payment, satisfaction, abatement of nuisance, or any other reason, it is unnecessary for a
claimant to proceed, he may apply to a Judge for judgment for costs;
Provided that such application shall be filed and served in the manner in which service of the originating process
was effected or in such manner as a Judge shall direct.
11.
Where judgment is entered pursuant to any of the preceeding rules of this Order, a Judge may set aside or vary such
judgment on just terms upon an application shall by the defendant. The application shall be made within a
reasonable time, show a good defence to the claim and a just cause for the default.
12.
In all claims not specifically provided for under this Order, where the party served with the originating process
does not appear within the time prescribed in the originating process, a claimant may proceed as if appearance had
been entered.
13.
Notice of any application under this order shall be served on the other party.
Order 11
Summary judgment
1.
Where a claimant believes that there is no defence to his claim, he shall file with his originating process the
statement of claim, the exhibits, the dispositions of his witnesses and an application for summary judgment which
application shall be supported by an affidavit stating the grounds for his belief and a written brief in respect thereof.
2.
A claimant shall deliver to the Registrar as many copies of all the processes and documents referred to in Rule 1 of
this order, as there are defendants.
3.
Service of all the processes and documents referred to in Rule 1 of this Order shall be effected in the manner
provided under Order 7.
4.
Where a party served with the processes and documents referred to in Rule 1 of this Order intends to defend the suit
he shall, not later than the time prescribed for defence, file:
(a)
his statement of defence,
(b)
depositions of his witnesses,
(c)
list and copies of documents to be used in his defence and
(d)
a Counter Affidavit and a written brief in reply to the application for summary judgment.
5.
(1)
Where it appears to a Judge that a defendant has a good defence and ought to be permitted to defend the
claim he may be granted leave to defend.
(2)
Where it appears to a judge that the defendant has no good defence the Judge may thereupon enter judgment
for a claimant.
(3)
Where it appears to a Judge that the defendant has a good defence to part of the claim but no defence to other
parts of the claim, the Judge may thereupon enter judgment for that part of the claim to which there is no
defence and grant leave to defend that part to which there is a defence.
6.
Where there are several defendants and it appears to a Judge that any of the defendants has a good defence and
ought to be permitted to defend the claim and other defendants have no good defence and ought not to be permitted
to defend the former may be permitted to defend and the Judge shall enter judgment against the latter.
Order 12
Application for account
1.
Where in an originating process a claimant seeks an account under Order 4 Rule 5 or where the claim involves
taking an account, if the defendant either fails to appear, or after appearance fails to satisfy a judge that there is a
preliminary question to be tried, the judge shall, on application make an order for the proper accounts, with all
necessary inquiries and directions.
2.
An application for account shall be supported by an affidavit filed on a claimant’s behalf, stating concisely the
grounds of his claim to an account. The application may be made at any time after the time prescribed for defence.
3.
Where an order is made for account under this Order, the account may be taken by a Judge or a Referee appointed
by the Judge.
Order 13
Parties
I
Parties Generally
1.
All persons may be joined in one action as claimants in whom any right to relief is alleged to exist whether jointly or
severally and judgment may be given for such claimant(s) as may be found to be entitled to relief and for such relief
as he or they may be entitled to, without any amendment.
2.
Where an action has been commenced in the name of the wrong person as claimant or where it is doubtful whether it
has been commenced in the name of the right claimant, a Judge may order the substitution or addition of any other
person as claimant on such terms as may be just.
3.
Where in commencing an action any person has been wrongly or improperly included as a claimant and a defendant
has set up a counterclaim or set-off, such defendant may establish his set-off or counterclaim as against the parties
other than a claimant so included, notwithstanding the inclusion of such claimant or any proceeding based thereon.
4.
Any person may be joined as defendant against whom the right to any relief is alleged to exist, whether jointly,
severally or in the alternative. Judgment may be given against one or more of the defendants as may be found to be
liable, according to their respective liabilities, without any amendment.
5.
Where an action has been instituted against a wrong defendant or where the name of a defendant has been
incorrectly stated a judge may upon application order a substitution or addition of any person as defendant or
correction of any such name on any term as may be just.
6.
(1)
It shall not be necessary that every defendant shall be interested as to all the reliefs prayed for, or as to every
cause of action included in any proceeding against him.
(2)
A Judge upon considering the defence filed by any defendant may on application by that defendant make
such order as may appear just to prevent him from being embarrassed or put to expense by being required to
attend any proceedings in which he may have no interest.
7.
A claimant may at his option join as parties to the same action all or any of the persons severally, or jointly and
severally, liable on any one contract, including parties to bills of exchange and promissory notes.
8.
Where a claimant is in doubt as to the person from whom he is entitled to redress, he may, in such manner as
hereinafter mentioned, or as may be prescribed by any special order, join two or more defendants, to the intent that
the question as to which, if any, of the defendants is liable and to what extent, may be determined as between all
parties.
9.
Persons under legal disability may sue by their guardians or defend by guardians appointed for that purpose.
10.
Where any person’s name is to be used in any action as guardian of a person under legal disability or other party or
as relator, a written authority for that purpose signed by that person shall be filed in the registry.
11.
Trustees, executors and administrators may sue and be sued on behalf of or as representing the property or estate of
which they are trustees or representatives, without joining any of the persons beneficially interested in the trust or
estate, and shall be considered as representing such person, but a Judge may, at any stage of the proceedings order
any of such persons to be made parties in addition to or in lieu of the previously existing parties. This rule shall
apply to trustees, executors and administrators in proceedings to enforce a security by foreclosure or otherwise
12.
(1)
Where there are numerous person having the same interest in one suit, one or more of such persons may sue
or be sued on behalf of or for the benefit of all persons so interested.
(2)
Where there are numerous persons having the same interest in one suit and they seek to defend the action, a
Judge may allow one or more of such persons to defend the action on behalf or for the benefit of all persons
so interested.
13.
(1)
Where in any proceedings concerning;
(a)
the administration of an estate or
(b)
property subject to a trust or
(c)
land held under customary law as family or community property or
(d)
the construction of any written instrument, including a statute, a Judge is satisfied that:
(i)
the person, the class or some members of the class interested cannot be ascertained or cannot
readily be ascertained;
(ii)
the person, the class or some members of the class interested if ascertained cannot be found;
(iii)
though the person or the class and the members thereof can be ascertained and found; it is
expedient for the purpose of efficient procedure that one or more persons be appointed to
represent that person or class or member of the class, the Judge may make the appointment.
The decision of the Judge in the proceedings shall be binding on the person or class of persons
so represented.
(2)
Notice of appointment made by a Judge under this rule and all processes filed in court shall be served on a
person(s) so appointed.
(3)
If in any proceedings mentioned in sub-rule 1 of this Rule, several persons having the same interest in
relation to the matter to be determined attend the hearing by separate Legal Practitioners, then unless the
judge considers that the circumstances justify separate representation, not more than one set of costs of the
hearing shall be allowed to these persons, and the judgment or order shall be framed accordingly.
(4)
In this Rule, the word "class" includes the persons recognized by Customary Law as members of a family or
as members of a land owing community.
14.
Where in any proceedings mentioned in sub-rule (1) of Rule 13 of this Order, a compromise is proposed and some
of the absent persons who are interested in or may be affected by the compromise are not parties to the proceedings
(including unborn or unascertained persons) but where;
(i)
where there are some other persons having the same interest before the court who assent to the
compromise or on whose behalf the court sanctions the compromise or
(ii)
the absent persons are represented by a person under Rule 13 of this Order who so assents;
a Judge if satisfied that the compromise will be for the benefit of the absent persons and that it is expedient to
exercise this power, may approve the compromise and order that such compromise shall be binding on the absent
persons, and they shall be bound accordingly, except where the order has been obtained by fraud or non-disclosure
of material facts.
15.
(1)
If in any proceedings it appears to a judge that any deceased person who was interested in the proceedings
has no legal representative, the Judge may proceed in the absence of any person representing the estate of the
deceased person, or may appoint some person to represent his estate for the purpose of the proceeding, on
such notice to such persons (if any) as the Judge shall deem fit, either specifically or generally by public
advertisement, and the order so made and any order consequent thereon shall bind the estate of the deceased
person in the same manner in every respect as if a duly constituted legal personal representative of the
deceased had been a party to the proceedings.
(2)
Where a sole or sole surviving claimant or defendant in a proceedings dies and the cause of action survives
but the person entitled to proceed fails to proceed, a Judge may on the application of either the deceased’s
Legal Practitioner or the opposing party order any person to take the place of the said deceased and proceed
with the suit.
(3)
In default of such application or where the person substituted fails to proceed, judgment may be entered for
the defendant or as the case may be for the person against whom the proceedings might have been continued.
16.
(1)
No proceedings shall be defeated by reason of misjoinder or non joinder of parties, and a Judge may deal
with the matter in controversy so far as regards the rights and interest of the parties actually before him.
(2)
A Judge may at any stage of the proceedings, either upon or without the application of either party, and on
such terms as may appear to the judge to be just, order that the names of any parties improperly joined be
struck out.
(3)
A Judge may order that the names of any party who ought to have been joined or whose presence before the
court is necessary to effectually and completely adjudicate upon and settle the questions involved in the
proceedings be added.
(4)
No person under legal disability shall be added as a claimant suing without a guardian and no person shall be
added as the guardian of a claimant under legal disability without his own consent in writing.
(5)
Every party whose name is added as defendant shall be served with the originating processes or notice in the
manner prescribed in these rules or in such manner as may be prescribed by a Judge and the proceedings
against such person shall be deemed to have begun on the service of such originating processes or notice.
17.
(1)
Any application to add or strike out or substitute or vary the name of a claimant or defendant may be made to
a Judge by motion.
(2)
Where the application is to add a claimant or a defendant, the application shall be accompanied by the
statement of claim or defence as the case may be, all the exhibits intended to be used and the depositions of
all the witnesses;
Provided that where the application is to substitute a deceased party with another person the application
may not be accompanied by the documents specified above
18.
Where a defendant is added or substituted the originating process shall be amended accordingly and the claimant
shall unless otherwise ordered by a Judge file an amended originating process and cause the new defendant to be
served in the same manner as the original defendant.
19.
(1)
Where it appears to a Judge that the any person not a party in the proceedings may bear eventual liability
either in whole or in part, the Judge may upon an ex-parte application allow that person to be joined as a
Third Party by any of the defendants.
The application shall state the grounds for the applicant’s belief that such Third Party may bear eventual
liability.
(2)
The order and existing processes shall be served on the Third Party within the time prescribed for delivering
the defence.
20.
Where a party is joined to any proceeding as a Third Party he may after service enter appearance within 8 days or
within 30 days if he resides or carriers on business outside jurisdiction or within such further time as a Judge may
order.
21.
If a Third Party duly served with the order and all existing processes does not enter an appearance or makes default
in filing any pleading, he shall be deemed to admit the validity of and shall be bound by any judgment given in the
action, whether by consent or otherwise.
22.
Party joined as a Third Party in any proceedings may join any other party in the same manner as he was joined and
the expression "Third Party" shall apply to and include every person so joined.
23.
A defendant may in his pleading make a claim against a co-defendant.
II
Action against firms and persons carrying on business in names other than their own
24.
Any two or more person claiming or alleged to be liable as partners and doing business within the jurisdiction may
sue or be sued in the name of the firms, if any, of which they were partners when the cause of action arose and party
to an action may in such case apply to the judge foe a statement of the names and addresses of the persons who were
partners in the firm when the cause of action arose, to be furnished in such manner, and verified on oath or
otherwise as the judge may direct.
25.
(1)
When an originating process is issued by partners in the name of their firm, the claimants or Legal
Practitioners shall, on demand in writing by or on behalf of any defendant declare in writing the names and
residential addresses of all the persons constituting the firm on whose behalf the action is brought.
(2)
Where the claimants or their Legal Practitioners fail to comply with such demand, all proceedings in the
action may, upon an application for that purpose, be stayed upon such terms as judge may direct.
(3)
Where the names of the partners are so declared, the suit shall proceed in the same manner and the same
consequences in all respects shall follow as if they had been named as claimants in the originating process
provided that the proceedings may continue in the name of the firm.
26.
(1)
Where persons are sued as partners in the name of their firm, they shall appear individually in their own
names; but all subsequent proceedings shall continue in the name of the firm.
(2)
Where an originating process is served upon a person having the control or management of the partnership
business no appearance by him shall be necessary unless he is a member of the firm sued.
27.
The above rules in this Part shall apply to proceedings between a firm and one or more its partners and between
firms having one or more partners in common, provided such firm or firms carry on business within the jurisdiction.
28.
Any person carrying on business within the jurisdiction in a name or style other than his own name may be sued in
such name or style as if it were a firm name, and, so far as the nature of the case will permit, all rules relating to
proceedings against firms shall apply.
III
Change of parties by death or otherwise etc.
29.
No proceedings shall abate by reason of death or bankruptcy of any of the parties, if the cause of action survives and
shall not become defective by the assignment, creation or devolution of any estate or title pendente lite, and, whether
the cause or action survives or not, there shall be no abatement by reason of the death of either party between the
finding on issues of fact and judgment, but judgment may in such case be entered notwithstanding the death.
30.
(1)
Where by reason of death or bankruptcy, or any other event occurring after the commencement of a
proceeding and causing a change or transmission of interest or liability, or by reason of any person interested
coming into existence after the commencement of the proceeding, it becomes necessary or desirable that any
person not already a party should be made a party or that any person already a party should be made a party
in another capacity, an order that the proceedings shall be carried on between the continuing parties and such
new party or parties may be obtained ex parte upon an allegation of such change, or transmission of interest
or liability, or of any such person interested having come into existence.
(2)
An order obtained under this rule shall be served upon the continuing party or parties, or their Legal
Practitioner(s) and also upon such new party unless the person making the application is the new party
(3)
Every person served who is not already a party to the proceedings shall where applicable enter an appearance
thereto within the same time and in the same manner as if he had been served with the originating process.
He shall thereupon be served with the originating and all existing processes.
(4)
Any parry served under this rule who was not already a parry to the proceedings shall file his pleadings and
other documents as if he had been an original party the proceedings.
31.
In case of an assignment, creation or devolution of any estate or title pendente lite, the cause or matter may be
continued by or against the person to or upon whom such estate or title has come or devolved.
32.
Where any person who is under no legal disability or being under any legal disability but having a guardian in the
proceedings is served with an order under Rule 30, such person may apply to a Judge to discharge or vary such order
at any time within 14 days from the service of the order.
33.
Where any person under any legal disability and not having a guardian in the proceedings is served with an order
under Rule 30, such a person may apply to a Judge to discharge or vary such order at anytime within 14 days from
the appointment of a guardian for such parry, and such period of 14 days has expired, such order shall have no force
or effect as against the person under legal disability
IV
Legal Practitioner or Agents
34.
Where by these rules any act may be done by any party in any proceedings, such act may be done either by the parry
in person, or by his Legal Practitioner, or by his agent (unless an agent is expressly barred under these rules).
Order 14
Joinder of Causes of Action
1.
Subject to the following rules of this Order, the claimant may unite in the same action several causes of action; but if
it appears that they cannot be conveniently tried or disposed of together a Judge may order separate trials of any
such causes of action or may make such order as may be necessary or expedient for the separate disposal thereof.
2.
(1)
An action for recovery of land may be joined with an action for declaration of title, mesne profit or arrears of
rent, damages for breach of any contract under which the land or any part thereof is held, or for any wrong or
injury to the premises.
(2)
An action for foreclosure or redemption may be joined with a claim for delivery of possession of the
mortgaged property and a claim for payment of principal money or interest secured by or any other relief in
respect of the mortgage of or charge on such land.
3.
Claims by or against an executor or administrator as such may be joined with claims by or against him personally
provided the last-mentioned claims are alleged to arise with reference to the estate in respect of which the claimant
or defendant sues or is sued as executor or administrator.
4.
Claims by claimant jointly may be joined with claims by them or any of them separately against the same
defendant.
Order 15
Pleadings
1.
(1) A statement of claim shall include the relief or remedy to which a claimant claims to be entitled
(2)
A defendant shall file his statement of defence, set off or counterclaim, if any, not later than 42 days after
service on him of the claimant's originating process and accompanying documents. A counterclaim shall have
the same effect as a cross action, so as to enable the court pronounce a final judgment in the same
proceedings. A set-off must be specifically pleaded.
(3)
A claimant shall within 14 days of service of the statement of defence and counterclaim if any, file his reply,
if any, to such defence or counterclaim:
Provided that where a defendant sets up a counter-claim, if a claimant or any other person named as part to
such counter claim contends that the claim thereby raised ought not to be disposed of by way of
counterclaim, but in an independent proceeding, a Judge may at any time order that such counter claim be
excluded.
2.
Every pleading shall contain a statement in a summary form of the material facts on which the party pleading relies
for his claim or defence, as the case may be, but not the evidence by which they are to be proved and shall, when
necessary be divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively. Dates, sums and numbers shall be expressed in
figures. Pleadings shall be signed by a Legal Practitioner or by the party if he sues or defends in person.
3.
(1)
In all cases in which the party pleading relies on any misrepresentation, fraud, breach of trust, willful default,
or undue influence and in all other cases, in which particulars may be necessary, particulars (with dates and
items if necessary) shall be stated in the pleadings.
(2)
In an action for libel or slander if the claimant alleges that the words or matter complained of were used in a
defamatory sense other than their ordinary meaning, he shall give particulars of the facts and matters on
which he relies in support of his allegation.
4.
An application for a further and better statement of the nature of the claim or defence, or further and better
particulars of any matter stated in any pleading requiring particulars shall be made to a Judge at the first Case
Management conference. The Judge may grant such application upon such terms as may be Just.
5.
(1)
Every allegation of fact in any pleadings if not specifically denied in the pleadings of the opposite party shall
betaken as admitted except as against a person under legal disability.
(2)
A general denial in any pleadings shall not operate as denial of any specific fact in the pleadings of the
opposing party.
6.
Each party shall specify distinctly in his pleadings any condition precedent, the performance or occurrence of which
is intended to be contested
7.
(1)
All grounds of defence or reply which makes an action reply; not maintainable or if not raised will take the
opposite party by surprise or will raise issues of facts not arising out of the preceding to be pleadings shall be
specifically pleaded.
(2)
Where a party raises any ground which makes a transaction void or voidable or such matters as fraud,
Limitation Law, release, payment, performance, facts showing insufficiency in contract or illegality either by
any enactment or by common law, he shall specifically plead same
8.
No pleading shall raise any new ground of claim or contain any allegation of fact inconsistent with the previous
pleadings of the party pleading the same
9.
A party may by his pleadings join issues upon the pleadings of the opposing party and such joinder of issues shall
operate as a denial of every material allegation of fact in the pleading upon which issue is joined except any fact
which the party may be willing to admit.
10.
Wherever the contents of any documents are material it shall be sufficient in any pleading to state the effect thereof
as briefly as possible, without setting out the whole or any part thereof, unless the precise words of the document or
any part thereof are material.
11.
Wherever it is material to allege notice to any person of any fact, matter or thing, it shall be sufficient to allege such
notice as a fact, unless the form or the precise terms of such notice or the circumstances from which such notice is to
be inferred are material.
12.
Wherever any contract or any relation between any persons is to be implied from a series of letters or conversations,
or other wise from a number of circumstances, it shall be sufficient to allege such contract or relation as a fact, and
to refer generally to such letters, conversations or circumstances without setting them out in detail. If in such case
the person so pleading desires to rely in the alternative upon more contracts or relations than one as to be implied
from such circumstances, he may state the same in the alternative.
13.
A party may not allege in any pleadings any matter or fact the law presumes in his favour or as to which the burden
of proof lies upon the other side, unless the same has first been specifically denied.
14.
In every case in which the cause of action is a stated or settled account the same shall be alleged with particulars but
in every case in which a statement of account is relied on by way of evidence or admission of any other cause of
action which is pleaded, the same shall not be alleged in the pleadings.
15.
No technical objection shall be raised to any pleading on the ground of any alleged want of form.
16.
A Judge may at the Case Management conference in any proceedings order to be struck out or amended, any matter
in any indorsement or Pleading which may be unnecessary or scandalous or which may tend to prejudice, embarrass
or delay the fair trial of the action; and may in any such case, if the Judge shall deem fit, order costs of the
application to be paid as between Legal Practitioner and client.
17.
(1)
Wherever it is material to allege malice, fraudulent intention, knowledge or other condition of the mind of
any person, it shall be sufficient to allege the same as a fact without setting out the circumstances from which
the same is to be inferred.
(2)
Where in an action for libel or slander the defendant pleads that any of the words or matters complained of
are fair comment on a matter of public interest or were published upon a privileged occasion, the claimant
shall, if he intends to allege that the defendant was actuated by express malice, deliver a reply giving
particulars of the facts and matters from which such malice is to be inferred.
(3)
Where in an action for libel or slander the defendant alleges that in so far as the words complained of consist
of statement of fact, they are true in substance and in fact, and in so far as they consist of expressions of
opinion, they are fair comment on a matter of public interest, or pleads to the like effect, he shall give
particulars stating which of the facts and matters he relies on in support of the allegation that the words are
true.
18.
(1)
The Judge may at any stage of the proceedings order to be struck out or amended any pleading or the
indorsement of any writ in the action, or anything in any pleading or in the indorsement, on the ground that:
(a)
it discloses no reasonable cause of action or defence, as the case may be; or
(b)
it is scandalous, frivolous or vexatious; or
(c)
it may prejudice, embarrass or delay the fair trial of the action; or
(d)
it is otherwise an abuse of the process of the Court; and may order the action to be stayed or dismissed
or judgment to be entered accordingly, as the case may be.
(2)
No evidence shall be admissible on application under paragraph (1) (a).
(3)
This rule shall, so far as practicable, apply to an originating summons and a petition as if the summons or
petition, as the case may be, were a pleading.
(4 )
No proceedings shall be open to objection on the ground that only a declaratory Judgment or order is sought
thereby and a Judge may make binding declaration of right whether any consequential relief is or could be
claimed or not.
19.
(1)
Where a pleading subsequent to reply is not ordered, then, at the expiration of 7 days from the service of the
defence or reply (if a reply has been filed) pleadings shall be deemed closed.
(2)
Where a pleading subsequent to reply is ordered, and the party who has been ordered or given leave to file
the same fails to do so within the period limited for that purpose, then, at the expiration of the period so
limited the pleadings shall be deemed closed.
Provided that this rule shall not apply to a defence to counterclaim and unless the clamant files a defence to
counterclaim, the statements of fact contained in such counterclaim shall at the expiration of 14 days from the
service thereof or of such time (if any) as may by order be allowed for filing of a defence thereto be deemed to be
admitted, but the judge may at any subsequent time give leave to the claimant to file a defence to counter-claim.
Order 16
Statement of Claim
1.
(1)
Every statement of claim, defence or counter claim shall state specifically the relief claimed either singly or
in the alternative, and it shall not be necessary to ask for general or other relief, which may be given as a
Judge may think just as if it had been asked for.
(2)
Where the clamant seeks relief in respect of several distinct claims or causes of complaint founded upon
separate and distinct grounds, they shall be stated, as far as may be, separately and distinctly. The same rule
shall apply where the defendant relies upon several distinct grounds of defence, set-off or counterclaim
founded upon separate and distinct facts.
2.
Whenever a statement of claim is filed, the claimant may alter, modify or extend his claim without any amendment
of the indorsement of the writ:
Provided that the claimant may not completely change his cause of action indorsed on the writ without amending the
writ.
Order 17
Defence and Counter-Claim
1.
The statement of defence shall be a statement in summary form and shall be supported by copies of documentary
evidence, list of witnesses and their written statements on oath.
2.
When a party in any pleading denies an allegation of fact in the previous pleading of the opposite party, he shall not
do so evasively, but answer the point of substance. If an allegation is made with diverse circumstances, it shall not
be sufficient to deny it along with those circumstances.
3.
(1)
In an action for debt or liquidated demand in money, a mere denial of the debt shall not be sufficient defence.
(2)
In an action for money had and received, a defence in denial must deny the receipt of the money or the
existence of those facts which are alleged to make such receipt by the defendant a receipt to the use of the
claimant.
(3)
In an action for goods sold and delivered, the defence must deny the order or contract, the delivery, or the
amount claimed.
(4)
In an action upon a bill of exchange, promissory note or cheque, a defence in denial must deny some matter
of fact, e.g. the drawing, making, indorsing, accepting, presenting or notice of dishonour of the bill or note.
4.
If either party wishes to deny the right of any other party to claim as executor, or a trustee or in any representative or
other alleged capacity, or the alleged constitution of any partnership firm, he shall deny the same specifically.
5.
No denial or defence shall be necessary as to damages claimed or their amount; they are deemed to be in issue in all
cases, unless expressly admitted.
6.
Where any defendant seeks to rely upon any ground as supporting a right of set-off or counter claim, he shall in his
defence state specifically that he does so by way of supporting a right of set off or counterclaim
7.
Where a defendant by his defence sets up any counter claim which raises questions between himself and the
claimant along with any other persons, he shall add to the title of his defence a further title similar to the title in a
statement of claim, setting forth the names of all persons who, if such counterclaim were to be enforced by cross
action would be defendants to such cross action, and shall deliver his defence to such of them as are parties to the
action within the period which he is required to deliver it to the claimant
8.
Where any such person as in Rule 7 of this Order is not a party to the action he shall be summoned to appear by
being served with a copy of the defence and counterclaim, and such service shall be regulated by the same rules as
those governing the service of the originating process, and every defence and counter claim so served shall be
indorsed in Form 12 with such modifications or variations as circumstances may require.
9.
Any person not already a party to the action, who is served with a defence and counterclaim as aforesaid, must
appear thereto as if he had been served with an originating process to appear in an action.
10.
Any person not already a party to the action, who is named in a defence as party to a counterclaim thereby made,
shall deliver a defence in a mode and manner prescribed under this Order and the provisions of the Order shall apply
to such a person.
11.
If, in any case in which the defendant sets up a counterclaim, the action of the claimant is stayed, discontinued or
dismissed, the counterclaim may nevertheless be proceeded with.
12.
Where in an action, a set off or counterclaim is established as a defence against the claimant’s claim, the Judge may,
if the balance is in favour of the of the defendant, give judgment for the defendant for such balance, or may
otherwise adjudge to the defendant such relief as he may be entitled to upon the merits of the case.
13.
(1)
Any ground of defence which arises after the action has been filed, but before the defendant has delivered his
defence, and before the time limited for doing so has expired, may be raised by the defendant in has defence,
either alone or together with other grounds of defence.
(2)
If after a defence has been delivered along with a set-off counterclaim, any basis for answer or ground of
defence arises to any such set-off or counterclaim respectively, it may be raised by the claimant in his
reply(in the case of a set-off ) or defence to counterclaim, either alone or together with any other ground of
reply or defence to counterclaim.
14.
Where any ground of defence arises after the defendant has delivered a defence, or after the time limited for his
doing so has expired the defendant may, and where any ground of defence to any set-off or counterclaim arises after
reply, or after the time limited for delivery of a reply has expired, the claimant may, within 8 days after such ground
of defence has arisen or at any subsequent time by leave of a Judge deliver a further defence or further reply, as the
case may be setting forth the same.
15.
Whenever any defendant in his defence or in any further defence pursuant to Rule 14 of this Order alleges any
ground of defence which has arisen after the commencement of the action, the claimant may concede to such
defence (which concession may be on Form 13 with such modification as circumstances may require) and may
thereupon obtain judgment up to the time of the pleading of such defence, unless the Judge either before or after the
delivery of such concession otherwise orders.
16.
A respondent to an originating summons shall file a counter to affidavit together with all the exhibits he intends to
rely upon and a written address within 21 days after service of the originating summons.
Order 18
Reply
1.
Where the claimant desires to make a reply, he shall file it within 14 days from the service of the defence.
2.
Where a counterclaim is pleaded, a reply thereto is called a defence to counterclaim and shall be subject to the rules
applicable to defences.
Order 19
Admissions
1.
Any party to a proceeding may give notice by his pleading or otherwise in writing, that he admits the truth of the
whole or of facts any part of the case of any other party.
2.
(1)
Either party may, not later than 7 days before the first Case Management conference, by notice in writing
filed and served, require any other party to admit any document and the party so served shall not later than 4
days after service give notice of admission or non-admission of the document, failing which he shall be
deemed to have admitted it unless a judge otherwise orders.
(2)
When a party decides to challenge the authenticity of any document, he shall not later than 7 days of service
of that document give notice that the does not admit the document and requires it to be proved at the trial.
(3)
Where a party gives notice of non-admission and the document is proved at the trial, the cost of proving the
document, which shall not be less than a sum of five thousand naira, shall be paid by the party who has
challenged it, unless at the trial or hearing the Judge shall certify that there were reasonable grounds for not
admitting the authenticity of the document.
3.
(1)
Either party may not later than 7 days before the first Case Management conference by notice in writing filed
and served require any other party to admit any specific fact or facts mentioned in the notice, and the party so
served shall not later than 4 days after service give notice of admission or non-admission of the fact or facts
failing which he shall be deemed to have admitted it unless a Judge otherwise orders.
(2)
Any admission made pursuant to such notice shall be deemed to be made only for the purposes of that
particular proceedings and not as an admission to be used against the party or any other party than the party
giving the notice.
(3)
Where there is a refusal or neglect to admit the same within 4 days after service of such notice or within such
further time as may be allowed by the Judge, the cost of proving such fact or facts which shall not be less
than a sum of five thousand naira, shall be paid by the party so refusing or neglecting whatever the result of
the proceedings, unless the Judge certifies that the refusal to admit was reasonable or unless the Judge at any
time otherwise order or directs.
4.
The Judge may, on application, at a Case Management conference or at any other stage of the proceedings where
admissions of facts have been made, either on the pleadings or otherwise, make such orders or give such judgment
as upon such admissions a party may be entitled to, without waiting for the determination of any other question
between the parties.
5.
Where a notice to admit or produce comprises documents that are not necessary, the cost occasioned thereby which
shall not be less than five thousand naira (N5,000.00) shall be borne the party giving such notice.
Order 20
Default of pleading
1.
If the claim is only for a debt or liquidated demand, and the defendant does not within the time allowed for the
purpose, file a defence, the claimant may, at the expiration of such time, apply for final judgment for the amount
claimed with costs.
2.
When in any such action as in Rule 1 of this Order there are several defendants, if one of them makes default as
mentioned in Rule 1 of this Order, the claimant may apply for final judgment against the defendants making default
and issue execution upon such judgment without prejudice to his right to proceed with his action against the other
defendants.
3.
(1)
If the claimant’s claim be for pecuniary damages or for detention of goods with or without a claim for
pecuniary damages only, and the defendant or all the defendants, if more than one, make default as
mentioned in Rule 1 of this Order, the claimant may apply to a Judge for interlocutory judgment against the
defendant or defendants and the value of the goods and the damages, or the damages only as the case may be,
shall be ascertained in any way which the Judge may order.
(2)
Where damages are to be ascertained and in all cases where declaratory reliefs are sought the judge shall set
down the matter for trial.
4.
When in any such action as in Rule 3 of this order there are several defendants, if one or more of them make default
as mentioned in Rule 1 of this Order, the claimant may apply to a Judge for interlocutory judgment against the
defendant or defendants so making default and proceed with his action against the others. In such case the value and
amount of damages against the defendant making default shall be assessed at the trial of the action or issues therein
against the other defendants, unless the Judge shall otherwise order.
5.
Where the claim is for debt or liquidated demand and also for pecuniary damages or for detention of goods with or
without a claim for pecuniary damages and includes a liquidated demand and any defendant makes default as
mentioned in Rule 1, the claimant may apply to a judge for final judgment for the debt or liquidated demand, and
may also apply for interlocutory judgment for the value of the goods and damages, or the damages, or the damages
only as the case may be, and proceed as mentioned in Rules 3 and 4.
6.
In an action for the recovery of land, if the defendant makes default as mentioned in Rule 1, the claimant may apply
for a judgment that the person whose title is asserted in the writ of summons shall recover possession of the land
with his costs.
7.
Where the claimant has indorsed a claim for mesne profits or arrears of rent in respect of the premises claimed, or
any part of profits, them, or damages for breach of contract or wrong or injury to the premises claimed upon a writ
for recovery of land, if the defendant makes default as mentioned in Rule 1, or if there be more than one defendant,
some or one of the defendants make such default, the claimant may apply for final judgment against the defaulting
defendant or defendants and proceed as mentioned in Rules 3 and 4.
8.
If the claimant’s claim is for a debt or liquidated demand or for pecuniary damages only, or for detention of goods
with or without a claim for pecuniary damages, or for any such matters, or for the recovery of land, and the
defendant files a defence which purports to offer an answer to part only of the claimant’s alleged cause of action, the
claimant may apply for judgment, final or interlocutory, as the case may be, for the part unanswered;
Provided that the unanswered part consists of a separate cause of action or is severable from the rest, as in the case
of part of a debt or liquidated demand:
Provided also that where there is a counterclaim, execution on any such judgment as above mentioned in
respect of the claimant’s claim shall not issue without leave of the Judge.
9.
(1)
In all actions other than those in the preceding rules of this Order, if the defendant makes default in filling a
defence, the claimant may apply to Judge for judgment, and such judgment shall be given upon the statement
of claim as the Judge shall consider the claimant to be entitled to.
(2)
Where there is no defence and the matter before the Court cannot be adjudged without the Claimant adducing
evidence to prove the case before the court, the claimant shall make an application to set the matter down for
trial before the judge who shall upon consideration and grant of the application proceed to hear the matter as
the trial judge
10.
Where in any such action as mentioned in Rule 9 of this Order, there are several defendants, if one of such
defendants makes such default as aforesaid, the claimant may apply for judgment against the defendant so making
default, and proceed against the other defendants.
11.
In any case in which issues arises in a proceeding other than between claimant and defendant, if any party to any
such issue makes default in filling any pleading, the opposite party may apply to a Judge for such judgment, if any,
as upon the pleadings he may appear to be entitled to, and the Judge may order judgment to be entered accordingly
or may make such other order as may be necessary to do justice between the parties.
12.
Any judgment by default whether under this Order or under any Order of these Rules shall be final and remain valid
and may only be set aside upon application to a Judge on grounds of fraud, non-service or lack of jurisdiction upon
such terms as the court may deem fit.
Order 21
Payment into and out of court
1.
(1)
Where after service in any proceeding for debt or damages, a defendant envisages an intention to pay money
into court in respect of the proceeding, he shall notify the Chief Registrar who will thereupon direct him to
pay the money into an interest yielding account in a commercial bank and he shall file the teller for such
payment with the Chief Registrar.
(2)
Where a teller for payment is filed with the Chief Registrar, he shall forthwith give notice of the payment to
the claimant who may apply to a Judge for an order to withdraw the amount so paid.
(3)
Where a defence of tender before action is set up, the sum of money alleged to have been tendered shall be
brought into court.
(4)
The defendant may without leave give a written notice to the Registrar of an intention to increase the amount
of any sum paid into court.
(5)
Where the money is paid into court in satisfaction of one or more of several causes of action, the notice shall
specify the cause or causes of action in respect of which payment is made and the sum paid in respect of each
such cause of action unless a Judge otherwise directs.
(6)
The notice shall be in Form 14 with such modifications or variations as circumstances may require. The
receipt of the notice shall be acknowledged in writing by the claimant within 3 days. The notice may be
modified or withdrawn or delivered in an amended form by leave of a judge upon such terms as may be just.
(7)
Where money is paid into court with denial of liability the claimant may proceed with the action in respect of
the claim and if he succeeds, the amount paid shall be applied so far as is necessary in satisfaction of the
claim, and the balance, if any, shall on the order of a Judge be repaid to the defendant. Where the defendant
succeeds in respect of such claim, the whole amount paid into court shall be repaid to him on the order of a
Judge.
2.
(1)
Where money is paid into court under Rule1, the claimant may within 14 days of the receipt of the notice of
payment into Court, or where more than one payment into court has been made, within 14 days of the receipt
of the notice of the last payment into court, accept the whole sum or any one or more the specific sum in
satisfaction of the cause or causes of action to which the specified sum or sums relate by giving notice to the
defendant in Form 15 with such modifications or variations as circumstances may require and thereupon shall
be entitled to receive payment of the accepted sum or sums in satisfaction as aforesaid.
(2)
Payment shall be made to the claimant or on his written authority to his Legal Practitioner and thereupon
proceedings in the action or in respect of the specified cause or causes of action (as the case may be) shall be
abated.
(3)
If the claimant accepts money paid into court in satisfaction of his claim, or if he accepts a sum or sums paid
in respect of one or more specified causes of action, and gives notice that he abandons the other causes of
action, he may after 4 days from payment out and unless a Judge otherwise orders, tax his costs incurred to
the time of payment into court, and 48 hours after taxation may sign judgment for his taxed costs.
(4)
Where in an action for libel or slander, the claimant accepts money paid into court, either party may apply by
summons to a Judge for leave for the parties or either of them to make a statement in open Court in terms
approved by the Judge.
3.
If the whole of the money in the court is not taken out under Rule 2, the money remaining in court shall not be paid
out except in satisfaction of the claim or specified cause or causes of action in respect of which it was paid in
pursuance of an order of a Judge which may be made at any time before, at or after trial.
4.
(1)
Money may be paid into court under Rule 1 of this order by one or more of several defendants sued jointly or
in the alternative upon notice to the defendant or defendants.
(2)
If the claimant elects within 14 days after receipt of notice of payment into court to accept the sums paid into
court, he shall give notice as in Form 16 with such modifications or variations as circumstances may require
to each defendant and thereupon all further proceedings in the action or in respect of the specified cause or
causes of action (as the case may be) shall abate.
(3)
The money shall not be paid out except in pursuance of an order of a Judge dealing with the whole cause or
causes of action.
(4)
In an action for libel or slander against several defendants sued jointly, if any defendant pays money into
court, the claimant may within 14 days elect to accept the sum paid into court in satisfaction of his claim
against the defendant making the payment and shall give notice to all the defendants as in form 15 with such
modifications or variations as circumstance may require. The claimant may tax his costs against the
defendant who has made such payment in accordance with Rule 2 (3) of this Order and the action shall abate
against that defendant.
(5)
The claimant may continue with the action against any other defendant but the sum paid into court shall be
set off against any damages awarded to the claimant against the defendant or defendants against whom the
action is continued.
5.
A person made a defendant to a counterclaim may pay money into court in accordance with the foregoing rules, with
necessary modification.
6.
(1)
In any proceeding in which money or damages is or are claimed by or on behalf of a person under legal
disability suing either alone or in conjunction with other parties, no settlement or compromise or payment or
acceptance of money paid into court, whether before, at or after the trial, shall as regards the claims of any
such person be valid without the approval of a Judge.
(2)
No money (which expression for the purposes of this Rule includes damages) in any way recovered or
adjudged or ordered or awarded or agreed to be paid in any such proceedings in respect of the claims of any
such person under legal disability whether by judgment, settlement, compromise, payment into court or
otherwise, before, at or after the trial, shall be paid to the claimant or to the guardian of the claimant or to the
claimant’s Legal Practitioner unless a Judge shall so direct.
(3)
All money so recovered or adjudged or ordered or awarded or agreed to be paid shall be dealt with, as the
Judge shall direct. The directions thus given may include any general or special directions that the Judge may
deem fit to give, including directions on how the money is to be applied or dealt with and as to any payment
to be made either directly or out of money paid into court to the claimant or to the guardian in respect of
moneys paid or expenses incurred or for maintenance or otherwise for or on behalf of or for the benefit of the
person under legal disability or otherwise or to the claimant’s Legal Practitioner in respect of costs or of the
difference between party and party and Legal Practitioner and client costs.
7.
Every application or notice for payment into or transfer out of Court shall be made on notice to the other side.
Order 22
Proceedings in lieu of demurrer.
1.
No demurrer shall be allowed.
2.
(1)
Any party may by his pleading raise any point of law and the Judge may dispose of the point so raised before,
at or after the trial.
(2)
If in the opinion of the Judge, the decision on such point of law substantially disposes of the whole
proceedings or of any distinct part thereof, the Judge may make such decision as may be just.
(3)
This provision shall be without prejudice to the Arbitration Act or any law under which a Defendant must
apply for stay of proceedings before filing a Statement of Defence or other statement of Case on the merits
Order 23
Withdrawal or Discontinuance
1.
(1)
The claimant may at any time before receipt of the defence or after the receipt thereof, before taking any
other proceeding in the action, by notice in writing duly filed and served, wholly discontinue his claim
against all or any of the defendants or withdraw any part or parts of his claim. He shall thereupon pay such
defendant’s costs of action, or if the action be not wholly discontinued, the costs occasioned by the matter so
withdrawn or discontinued.
(2)
A withdrawal or discontinuance as the case may be shall not be a defence to any subsequent claim.
2.
(1)
Where a defence has been filed and served, the clamant before taking any other step in the proceeding, may
with with the leave of a Judge withdraw or discontinue the proceedings or any part thereof on such terms and
conditions as the Judge may order.
(2)
Where proceedings have been stayed or struck out upon a claimant’s withdrawal or discontinuance under this
Order no subsequent claim shall be filed by him on the same or substantially the same facts until the terms
imposed on him by the Judge have been fully complied with.
3.
When a cause is ready for trial, it may be withdrawn by either claimant or defendant upon producing to the
Registrar, a consent in writing signed by the parties and thereupon a judge shall strike out the matter without the
necessity of attendance of the parties or their Legal Practitioner.
Order 24
Amendment
1.
A party may amend his originating process and pleadings at any time before the Case Management conference and
not more than twice during the trial but before the close of the case.
2.
Application to amend may be made to a Judge. Such application shall be supported by an exhibit of the proposed
amendment and may be allowed upon such terms as to costs or otherwise as may be just.
3.
Where any originating process and or a pleading is to be amended a list of any additional witness to be called
together with his written statement on oath and a copy of any document to be relied upon consequent on such
amendment shall be filed with the application.
4.
If a party who has obtained an order to amend does not amend accordingly within the limited for that purpose by the
order, or if no time is thereby limited, then within 7 days from the date of the order, such party shall pay an
additional fee of N200.00 (two hundred naira) for each day of default.
5.
Whenever any originating process or pleading is amended, a copy of the document as amended shall be filed in the
Registry and additional copies served on all the parties to the action.
6.
Whenever any endorsement or pleading is amended, it shall be marked in the following manner:
"Amended ……… day of …… pursuant to Order of (name of Judge) dated the …… day of …… "
7.
A Judge may at any time correct clerical mistakes in judgments or orders, or errors arising therein from any
accidental slip or omission upon application, without an appeal being filed.
8.
Subject to the provisions of Rule 1 of this Order, a Judge may at any time and on such terms to cost or otherwise as
may be just, amend any defect or error in any proceedings.
Order 25
Case Management Conferences and Scheduling
1.
(1)
Within 14 days after close of pleadings, the claimant shall apply for the issuance of a Case Management
Conference Notice as in Form 17.
(2)
Upon application by a claimant under sub-rule 1 above, the Judge shall cause to be issued to the parties and
their Legal Practitioners (if any) a Case Management Conference notice as in Form 17 accompanied by a
Case Management Information sheet as in Form 18 for the purpose set out hereunder:
(a)
disposal of matters which must or can be dealt with on interlocutory application;
(b)
giving such directions as to the future course of the action as appear best adapted to secure its just,
expeditious and economical disposal;
(c)
promoting amicable settlement of the case or adoption of Alternative Dispute Resolution. (ADR)
(3)
If the claimant does not make the application in accordance with sub-rule 1 of this Rule, the defendant(s)
may do so or apply for an order to dismiss the action.
2.
At the Case Management Conference, the Judge shall consider and take appropriate action with respect to such of
the following (or aspects of them) as may be necessary or desirable:
(a)
formulation and settlement of issues;
(b)
amendments and further and better particulars;
(c)
the admission of facts and other evidence by consent of the parties;
(d)
control and scheduling of discovery, inspection and production of documents;
(e)
settlement of document to be admitted as exhibits at the trial;
(f)
narrowing the field of dispute between expert witnesses, by their participation at Case Management
Conferences or in any other manner
(g)
hearing and determination of applications and objections on points of law;
(h)
giving orders or directions for separate trial of a claim, Counter-Claim, set-off. Cross-claim or Third party
Claim or of any particular issue in the case.
(i)
settlement of issues, inquires and accounts under Order 27;
(j)
securing statement of special case of law or facts under Order 28;
(k)
determining the form and substance of the Case Management order;
(l)
making referrals to the Lagos Multi-Door Courthouse or other relevant ADR bodies
(m)
implementing any ADR Order made under (1) above
(n)
such other matters as may facilitate the just and speedy disposal of the action
3.
The Case Management Conference or series of Case Management Conferences with respect to any case shall be
completed within 3 months of its commencement, and the parties and their Legal practitioners shall co-operate with
the Judges in working within this time table. As far as practicable, Case Management conferences shall be held from
day to day or adjourned only for purposes of compliance with Case Management Conference orders unless extended
by the Chief Judge.
4.
After a Case Management conference or series of Case Management Conferences, the Judge shall issue a Report.
This Report shall guide the subsequent course of the proceedings unless modified by the trial judge.
5.
If a party or his Legal Practitioner fails to attend the Case Management conference or obey a scheduling order or is
substantially unprepared to participate in the conference or fails to participate in good faith the Judge shall:
(a)
In the case of the claimant dismiss the claim;
(b)
In the case of a defendant enter judgment against him where appropriate.
6.
Where a case is deemed suitable for ADR under Order 3 Rule 11 or has any by directives been referred to ADR
under Order 25 Rule (2) (1) above, the ADR Judge shall in case of recalcitrant parties consider and give appropriate
directives to parties on the filing of statement of Case and other necessary issues.
(a)
The Claimant shall file his Statement of case within fourteen (14) days of the Order of the Judge.
(b)
The defendant shall file his response within fourteen (14) days of service of the Claimant’s Statement of
Claim
7.
Any Judgment given under Rule 5 or Rule 6 (2) above may be aside upon an application made within 7 days of the
judgment or such other period as the Judge or ADR Judge may allow.
The application shall be accompanied by an undertaking to participate effectively in the Case Management
conference.
8.
The Judge shall direct the Case Management Conference with due regards to its purpose and agenda as provided
under this order, and shall require parties or their Legal Practitioners to co-operate with him effectively in dealing
with the conference agenda.
Order 26
Discovery and Inspection
1.
In any cause or matter the claimant or defendant may deliver interrogatories in writing for the examination of the
opposite parties or any one or more of such parties and such interrogatories when delivered shall have a note at the
end of it stating which of the interrogatories each person is required to answer. Interrogatories shall be delivered
within 7 days of close pleading and shall form part of the agenda of Case Management conference.
2.
Interrogatories shall be in form 19 with such modifications or variations as circumstances may require.
3.
If any party to a cause or matter is a limited or unlimited company, body corporate, firm, enterprise, friendly society,
association or any other body or group of persons, whether incorporated or not, empowered by law to sue or be
sued, whether in its own name or in the name of any officer or other person, any opposite party may deliver
interrogatories to any member or officer of such party.
4.
Any objection to answering any one or more of several interrogatories on the ground that it is or they are scandalous
or irrelevant may be taken in the affidavit in answer at the Case Management conference.
5.
Interrogatories shall be answered by affidavit to be filed within 7 days, or within such other times as the Judge may
allow. Two copies of the affidavit in answer shall be supplied to the Registrar.
6.
An affidavit in answer to interrogatories shall be in Form 20 with such modifications or variations as circumstances
may require.
7.
If any person interrogated omits to answer or answers insufficiently, the per-trial Judge shall on application issue an
order requiring him to answer or to answer further as the case may be.
8.
(1)
Any party may in writing request any other party to any cause or matter to make discovery on oath of the
documents that are or have been in his possession, custody, power or control relating to any matter in
question in the case. Request for discovery shall be served within 7 days of close of pleadings and shall form
part of the agenda of Case Management conference. The party on whom such a request is served shall answer
on oath completely and truthfully within 7 days of the request or within such other time as the Judge may
allow and it shall be dealt with at the pre- trial conference.
(2)
Every affidavit in answer to a request for discovery of a request for discovery of documents shall be
accompanied by office copies of documents referred to therein
(3)
The affidavit to be made by any person in answer to a request for discovery of documents shall specify
which, if any, of the listed documents he objects to producing, stating the grounds of his objection, and it
shall be in Form 21 with such modifications or verification as circumstances may require.
9.
(1)
Any process to be filed after the Case Management conference shall be accompanied by copies of documents
referred to in the process.
(2)
Where a process to be filed after the pre-trail conference shall be accompanied by copies of documents
referred to in the process.
10.
(1)
Where any document required to be attached to any process or produced under this or any other rule is a
business book a Judge may upon application order a copy of any entry therein to be furnished and verified in
an affidavit. Such affidavit shall be made by a person who keeps the book or under whose supervision the
book is kept
(2)
Notwithstanding that a copy has been supplied a Judges may order inspection of the book from which the
copy was made.
(3)
The Judge may upon application whether or not an affidavit of document has been ordered or filed, make an
order enquiring any party to state by affidavit whether any particular document or any class of documents is
or has at anytime been in his possession, custody, power or control, when he parted with the same and what
has become of it.
11.
An order for interrogatories or discovery or inspection made against any party if served on his legal practitioner
shall be sufficient service to found an application for attachment of a party for disobedience to the order.
12.
A legal practitioner upon whom an order against any party for interrogatories or discover or inspection is served
under the last preceding Rule, who neglects without reasonable excuse to give notice thereof to his client, shall be
liable to attachment.
13.
Any party may, at the trial of a cause, matter or issue, use in evidence any one or more of the answers or any part of
an answer of the opposite party to interrogatories without putting in the other or the whole of such answer:
Provided that the Judge may look at the whole of the answers and order that any of them may be put in.
14.
In any action against or by a Sheriff in respect of any matters connected with the execution of his office, a Judge
may on application of either party order that the affidavit to be made in answer either to interrogatories or to any
order for discovery shall be made by the officer actually concerned.
15.
This Order shall apply to persons under disability and their guardians.
Order 27
Issues, Inquires, Accounts and References to Referees.
1.
(1)
In all proceedings, issues of facts in dispute shall defined by each party and filed within 7 days after close
pleadings.
(2)
If the parties differ on the issues the Case Management judge may settle the issues.
2.
In any legal proceeding the Judge may at time order the whole cause or matter or any question or issue of facts
arising therein, to be tried before an official referee or officer of the court, notwithstanding that it may appear that
there is a special or other relief sought or some special issue to be tried, as to which it may be proper that the cause
or matter should proceed in the ordinary manner.
3.
In any case in which a matter is referred to a referee the Court shall furnish the referee with such part of the
proceedings and such information and detailed instructions as may appear necessary for his guidance, and shall
direct the parties if necessary to attend upon the referee during the inquiry.
4.
The referee may, subject to the order of the Judge, hold the inquiry at or adjourn it to any place which he may deem
most expedient and have any inspection or view which he may deem expedient for the disposal of the controversy
before him. He shall, so far as practicable, proceed with the inquiry from day to day.
5.
(1)
Subject to any order made by the Judge ordering the inquiry, evidence shall be taken at any inquiry before a
referee, and the attendance of witnesses to give evidence before a referee may be enforced by the Judge in the
same manner as such attendance may be enforced before the Court; and every such inquiry shall be
conducted in the same manner or as nearly as circumstances will admit as trials before a Court.
(2)
The referee shall have the same authority in the conduct of any inquiry as a Judge when presiding at any trial.
(3)
Nothing in these rules shall authorize any referee to commit any person to person or to enforce any order by
attachment or otherwise; but the Judge may, in respect of matters before a referee, make such order of
attachment or commitment as he may consider necessary.
6.
(1)
The report made by a referee in pursuance of a reference under this Order shall be made to the Judge and
notice thereof served on the parties to the reference.
(2)
A referee may by his report submit any question arising therein for the decision of the Judge or make a
special statement of facts from which the judge may draw such inferences as he deems fit.
(3)
On the receipt of a referee’s report, the Judge may:
(a)
adopt the report in whole or in part;
(b)
vary the report;
(c)
require an explanation from him;
(d)
remit the whole or any part of the question or issue originally referred to him for further consideration
by him or any other referee;
(e)
decide the question or issue originally referred to him on the evidence taken before him, either with or
without additional evidence.
(4)
When the report of the referee has been made, an application to vary the report or remit the whole or any part
of the question or issue originally referred may be made on the hearing by the Judge for the further
consideration of the cause or matter, after giving not less than 4 days notice thereof and any other application
with respect to the report may be made on that hearing without notice.
(5)
Whereon on a reference under this Order a Judge orders that the further consideration of the cause or matter
in question shall not stand adjourned until the receipt of the referee’s report, the order may contain directions
with respect to the proceedings on the receipt of the report and the foregoing provision of this rule shall have
effect subject to any such directions.
7.
The Judge may order or direct an account to be taken or by any subsequent order give special directions with regard
to the mode in which the account is to be taken or vouched and in particular may direct that in taking the account,
the books of account in which the accounts in question have been kept shall be taken as prima facie evidence of the
truth of their continents. With liberty to the interested parties to object.
8.
Where any account is directed to be taken, the accounting party shall make out his account and verify the same by
affidavit. The items on each side of the account shall be numbered consecutively, and the account shall be referred
to by the affidavit as an exhibit and left in the Registry.
9.
Upon the taking of any account the Judge may direct that the voucher be produced at the chambers of the accounting
party’s Legal Practitioner or at any other convenient place and that only such items as may be contested or
surcharged shall brought before the Judge.
10.
Any party seeking to charge any accounting party beyond what he has by his account admitted to have received
shall give notice to the accounting party, stating so far as he is able, the amount sought to be charged with
particulars.
11.
Where by any judgment or order any accounts are directed to be taken or inquires to be made, each such direction
shall be numbered so that as far as may be, each distinct account and inquire may be designated by a number and
such judgment or order shall be in Form 22 with such modifications or variations as the circumstances of the case
may require.
12.
In taking any account directed by any judgment or order, all just allowances shall be made without any direction for
that purpose.
13.
If it shall appear to the Judge that there is any undue delay in the prosecution of any proceedings, the Judge may
require the party having the conduct of the proceedings or any other party, to explain the delay and may thereupon
make such order with regard to expediting the proceedings or the conduct thereof, or the stay thereof and as to the
costs of the proceedings as the circumstances of the case may require; and for the purposes aforesaid any party may
be directed to summon the persons whose attendance is required, and to conduct any proceeding and carry out any
directions which may be given.
Order 28
Special Case
1.
At the Case Management conference parties may concur in stating the questions of law arising in their case in the
form of a special case for the opinion of the Judge. Every such special case shall be divided into paragraphs
numbered consecutively and shall concisely state such facts and documents as may be necessary to enable the court
to decide the questions. Upon the argument of such case the Judge and the parties may refer to all the contents of
such documents and the Judge may draw from the facts and documents stated in any such special case any inference,
whether of fact or law, which might have been drawn form them if proved at a trial.
2.
If at the Case Management conference it appears to the judge that there is in any cause or matter a question of law,
which could be conveniently decided before any evidence is given or any question or issue of fact is tried, the Judge
may make an order accordingly, and may raise such questions of law or direct them to be raised at the trial either by
special case or in such other manner as the judge may deem expedient, and all such further proceedings as the
decision of such question of law may render unnecessary may thereupon be stayed.
3.
Every special case agreed pursuant to Rule 1 shall be signed by the several parties or their Legal practitioners and
shall be filed by the claimant or other party having conduct of the proceedings.
4.
An application to set down a special case in any cause or matter to which a person under legal disability is a party
shall be supported by sufficient evidence that the statements contained in such case, so far as the same affects the
interest of such persons legal are true.
5.
(1)
The parties to a special case may, if they think fit, enter into an agreement in writing, which shall not be
subject to any stamp duty, that on the judgment of the court being given in the affirmative or negative on the
questions of law raised by the special case, a sum of money fixed by the parties or to be ascertained by the
court or in such manner as the Court may direct, shall be paid by one of the parties to the other of them,
either with or without costs as the case may be.
(2)
The Judgment of the court may be entered for the sum so agreed or ascertained, with of without cost, as the
case may be, and execution may issue upon such judgment forthwith, unless otherwise agreed or unless
stayed on appeal.
6.
This Order shall apply to every special case stated in a cause or matter and in any proceedings incidental thereto.
Order 29
Cause Lists
1.
(1)
The Registrar shall keep a list (hereinafter called the Case Management List) of actions directed to be set
down for Case Management Conference under Order 25 Rule 3.
(2)
The Registrar shall also keep a Weekly Cause List of all other actions, which are ready for trial or hearing.
2.
(1)
The Registrar shall post up every Friday a Case Management and Weekly Cause List which shall set out the
arrangement of causes before each of the Judges sitting in Court during the following week
(2)
Nothing in this rule shall preclude the Chief Judge from making special arrangements whenever necessary or
convenient, for the disposal of causes and matters included in the list.
3.
Where any Friday is a public holiday, the Case management List and Holidays Weekly shall be posted up on the day
last preceding which is not a public holiday.
4.
On any day when a Judge shall be unable to sit in Court and deal with any cause or matter fixed for hearing, a
minute, recording the parties present and the step taken by the Registrar, shall be entered on the Court file.
5.
Case Management Lists and Weekly Cause Lists and other such lists shall be posted up on one or more notice
boards set up in such place or places within or near the Court premises as the Chief Judge may designate.
Order 30
Proceeding at Trial
1.
When a cause on a Weekly Cause List has been called for hearing and neither party appears, the Judge shall unless
he sees good reason to the contrary, strike the cause out.
2.
When a cause is called for hearing if the claimant appears and the defendant does not appear, the claimant may
prove his claim, so far as the burden of proof lies upon him.
3.
When a cause is called for hearing, if the defendant appears and the claimant does not appear, the defendant if he
has no counter claim shall be entitled to judgment dismissing the action but if he has a counterclaim, then he may
prove such counterclaim so far as the burden of proof lies upon him.
4.
(1)
Where a cause is struck out under Rule 1 of this order either party may apply that the cause be replaced on
the cause list on such terms as the Judge may deem fit.
(2)
Any judgment obtained where any party does not appear at the trial may be set aside by the Judge upon such
terms as he may deem fit.
(3)
An application to re-list a cause struck out or to set aside a judgment shall be made within 6 days after the
order or judgment or such other larger period as the Judge may allow.
5.
The Judge may, if he thinks it expedient in the interests of justice, postpone or adjourn a trial for such time and upon
such terms, if any, as he shall deem fit.
6.
The Registrar or other proper officer present at any trial or hearing shall make a note of the times at which the trial
or hearing commences and terminates respectively and the time it actually occupies on each day it goes on for
communication to the taxing officer if required.
7.
The order of proceeding at the trial of a cause shall be as prescribed in the following rules.
8.
The party on whom the burden of proof lies by the nature of the issues or questions between the parties shall begin.
9.
Documentary evidence shall be put in and may be read or taken as read by consent.
10.
(1)
A party who desires to call any witness not being a witness whose deposition on oath accompanied his
pleading shall apply to the Judge for leave to call such witness.
(2)
An application for leave in sub-rule 1 above shall be accompanied by the deposition on oath on such witness.
11.
(1)
A party shall close his case when he has concluded his evidence. Either the claimant or defendant may make
oral application to have the case closed.
(2)
Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-rule 1 above, the Judge may suo-motu where he considered that either
party fails to conclude his case within a reasonable time, close the case for the party.
12.
(1)
The Registrar shall take charge of every document or object put in as an exhibit during the trial of an action
and shall mark or label every exhibit with a letter or letters indicating the party by whom the exhibit is put in
(or where more convenient the witness by whom the exhibit is proved) and with a number, so that all the
exhibits put in by a party (or proved by a witness) are numbered in one consecutive series.
(2)
The Registrar shall cause a list of all the exhibits in the action to be made.
(3)
The list of exhibits when completed shall form part of the records of the action.
(4)
For the purpose of this rule a bundle of documents may be treated and counted as one exhibit.
(5)
In this rule a witness by whom an exhibit is proved includes a witness in the course of whose evidence the
exhibit is put in.
13.
When the party beginning has concluded his evidence, the Judge shall ask the other party if he intends to call
evidence. If the other party does not intend to call evidence, the party beginning shall within 21 days after close of
evidence file a written address. Upon being served with the written address, the other party shall within 21 days file
his own written address.
14.
Where the other party calls evidence he shall within 21 days after the close of evidence file a written address.
15.
Upon being served with other party’s written address the party beginning shall within 21 days file his own written
address.
16.
The party who files the first address shall have a right of reply on points of law only. The reply shall be filed within
7 days after service of the other party’s address.
17.
(1)
An exhibit should not be released after the trial to the party who has put it in unless the period during which
notice of appeal may be given has elapsed without such notice having been given, and then only if the trial
Judge ( or in his absence another Judge) grants leave to release such exhibit on being satisfied:
(a)
that the exhibit will be kept duly marked and labeled and will be produced, if required, at the hearing
of an appeal ( if any such appeal is logged), or
(b)
that the release of the exhibit will not in any way prejudice any other party.
(2)
After a notice of appeal has been filed, an exhibit produced at the trial shall not be release by the High Court
unless leave to release such exhibit is granted by the Court of Appeal.
18.
(1)
Any party may apply for and on payment of the prescribed free obtain an office copy of the list of exhibits
for the exhibits.
(2)
Where there is an appeal an office copy of the list of exhibits shall be included amongst the documents
supplied for the purpose of the appeal.
19.
A Judge may, at any stage of proceeding in a matter whether at trial or otherwise either suo motu or on application,
strike out a matter not being prosecuted diligently.
Order 31
Filling of Written Address
1.
This order shall apply to all applications and final addresses.
2.
A written address shall be printed on white opaque A4 size paper and set out in paragraphs numbered serially and
shall contain:
(i)
the claim or application on which the address is based
(ii)
a brief statement of the facts with reference to the exhibit attached to the application or tendered at the trial;
(iii)
The issue arising from the evidence;
(iv)
a succinct statement of argument on each issue incorporating the purport of the authorities referred to
together with full citation of each such authority.
3.
All written addresses shall be concluded with a numbered summary of the points raised and the party’s prayer. A list
of all authorities referred to shall be submitted with the address. Where any unreported judgment is relied upon the
Certified True Copy shall be submitted along with the written address.
4.
Oral argument of not more than twenty minutes shall be allowed for each party.
5.
Each party shall file two copies of his written address in court and serve a copy thereof on every party.
Order 32
Evidence Generally
1.
(1)
Subject to these rules and enactment relating to evidence any fact required to be proved at the trial of any
action shall be proved at the trial of any action shall be proved by written deposition and oral examination of
witnesses in open court.
(2)
All agreed documents or other exhibits shall be tendered from the bar or by the party where he is not
represented by a Legal Practitioner.
(3)
Real evidence shall be tendered during the trial.
(4)
The oral examination of a witness during his evidence in chief shall be limited to confirming his written
deposition and tendering in evidence all disputed documents or other exhibits referred to in the deposition
provided that a judge may allow a witness on subpoena to lead oral evidence in examination-in-chief without
having sworn a written statement in appropriate cases.
2.
(1)
A Judge may, at or before the trial of an action, order or direct that evidence of any particular fact be given at
the trial in such manner as may be specified by the order or direction.
(2)
The power conferred by sub-rule 1 of this rule extends in particular to ordering or directing that evidence of
any particular fact be given at the trial:
(a)
by statement on oath of information or belief;
(b)
by the production of documents or entries in books;
(c)
by copies of documents or entries in book; or
(d)
in the case of a fact which is or was a matter of common knowledge either generally or in a particular
district, by the production of a specified newspaper which contains a statement of that fact.
3.
A Judge may, at or before the trial of action order or direct that the number of medical or expert witnesses who may
be called at the trial be limited as specified by the order or direction.
4.
Unless, at or before trial, a Judge for special reasons otherwise orders or directs, no document, plan, photograph or
model shall be receivable in evidence at the trial of an action unless it has been filed along with the pleadings of the
parties under these rules.
5.
Any order or direction under this Order may, on sufficient cause being shown, be revoked or varied by a subsequent
order or direction of a Judge made or given at or before the trial.
6.
Office copies of all writs, processes, records, pleadings, and documents field in the High Court shall be admissible
in evidence in all matters to the same extent as the original would be admissible.
7.
Where an order is made for the issue of a request to examine witness or witnesses in any foreign country with which
a Convention in that behalf has been or shall be made, the following procedure shall be adopted.
(a)
the party obtaining such order shall file in the registry an undertaking in the Form 23 which form may be
varied as may be necessary to meet the circumstances of the particular case in which it is used;
(b)
Such undertaking shall be accompanied by-
(i)
a request in Form 24, with such modifications or variations as may be directed in the order for its
issue, together with translation in the language of the country in which it is to be executed (if not
English);
(ii)
a copy of the interrogatories ( if any) to accompany the requests, with a translation if necessary;
(iii)
a copy of the cross-interrogatories (if any) with a translation if necessary.
8.
Where an order is made for the examination of a witness or witnesses before the Nigerian Diplomatic Agent in any
foreign country with which a Convention in that behalf has been made the order shall be Form 25, the form may be
modified or varied as may be necessary to meet the circumstances of the particular case in which it is used.
9.
The Judge may at any stage of any proceedings order the attendance of any person for the purpose of producing any
writings or other documents named in the order:
Provided that no person shall be compelled to produce under any such order any writing or other document which he
could not be compelled to produce at the hearing or trial.
10.
Any person willfully disobeying any order requiring his attendance for the purpose of being examined or producing
any document shall be in contempt of court, and may be dealt with accordingly.
11.
Any person required to attend for the purpose of being examined or of producing any document, shall be entitled to
payment for expenses and loss of time occasioned by his attendance.
12.
If any person duly summoned by subpoena to attend for examination shall refuse to attend or if having attended, he
shall refuse to be sworn or to answer any lawful question he shall be in contempt of court and may be dealt with
accordingly by the Judge.
13.
When the examination of any witness before any examiner under Rule 7 above shall have been conducted, the
original deposition authenticated by the signature of the examiner, shall be transmitted by him to the Registry and
filed.
14.
Except where by this Order otherwise provided or directed by a Judge, no deposition shall be given in evidence at
the hearing or trial of the case or matter without the consent of the party against whom the same may be offered,
unless the Judge is satisfied that the deponent is dead or beyond the jurisdiction of the court or unable from sickness
other infirmity to attend the hearing or trial, in any of which case the depositions certified under the hand of the
person taking the examination shall be admissible in evidence, saving all just exceptions, without proof of the
signature to such certificate.
15.
Any officer of the Court or other person directed to take the examination of any witness or person or any person
nominated or appointed to take the examination of any witness or person pursuant to the provisions of any
Convention made with any foreign country, may administer oaths.
16.
A party may by subpoena ad testificandium or duces tecum require the attendance of any witness before an officer
of the court or other person appointed to take the examination, for the purpose of using his evidence upon any
proceeding in the cause or matter in like manner as such witness would be bound to attend and be examined at the
hearing or trial; and any party or witness having made an affidavit to be used in any proceeding in the cause or
matter shall be bound on being so subpoenaed to attend before such officer or person for cross-examination.
17.
The practice with reference to the examination, cross examination and re-examination of witnesses at a trial shall
extend and be applicable to evidence taken in any cause or matter at any stage.
18.
The practice of court with respect to evidence at a trial, when applied to evidence to be taken before an officer of the
court or other person in any case or matter after the hearing of trial, shall be subjected to any special directions,
which may be given in any case.
19.
Subject to the provision of section 34 of the Evidence Act, all evidence taken at the hearing or trial of any cause or
matter may be used in any subsequent proceedings in the same cause or matter.
20.
Where it is intended to issue out a subpoena a praecipe for that purpose in Form 26 containing the name or firm and
the place of business or residence of the Legal Practitioner intending to issue out the same, and where such Legal
Practitioner is agent only, then also the name or firm and the place of business or and residence of the principal
Legal Practitioner, shall in all cases be delivered and filed at the Registry. No subpoena shall be issued unless all
court fees have been paid (including fee for service) and unless sufficient conduct money on the prescribed scale is
deposited to cover the first day’s attendance.
21.
A subpoena shall be in one of Forms 27, 28 or 29 with such variations as circumstances may require.
22.
Where a subpoena is required for the attendance of a witness for the purpose of proceedings in Chambers, such
subpoena shall issue from the Registry upon the Judge’s directive.
23.
In the interval between the issue and service of any subpoena the Legal Practitioner issuing it may correct any error
in the names of parties or witnesses, and may have the writ resealed upon leaving a corrected praecipe of the
subpoena marked with words "altered and resealed", with the signature, name and address of the Legal Practitioner.
24.
A subpoena shall be served personally unless substituted service has been ordered by Judge in a case where a person
persistently evades service. The provisions of Order 7 shall so far as possible apply to service and proof of service of
a subpoena.
25.
Any subpoena shall remain in force from the date of issue until the trial of action or matter in which it is issued.
26.
Any person who would under the circumstances alleged by him to exist become entitled upon the happening of any
future event to any honour, title, dignity or office, or to any estate or interest in any property real or personal the
right or claim to which cannot be brought to trial by him before the happening of such event, may commence an
action to perpetuate any testimony which may be material for establishing such right or claim.
27.
A witness shall not be examined to perpetuate his testimony unless an action has been commenced for that purpose.
28.
No action to perpetuate the testimony of a witness shall be set down for trial.
Order 33
Affidavits
1.
Upon any motion, petition, summons or other application, evidence may be given by affidavit, but the Judge may,
suo motu or on application, order the attendance for cross- examination of the deponent and where, after such an
order has been made the person in question does not attend, his affidavit shall not be used as evidence save by
special leave.
2.
Every affidavit shall bear the title in the cause or matter in which it is sworn but in every case in which there is more
than one claimant or defendant, it shall be sufficient to state the full name of the first claimant or defendants
respectively, and that there are other claimants or defendants as the case may be.
3.
The Judge may receive any affidavit sworn for the purpose of being used in any cause or matter, notwithstanding
any defect by mis-description of parties or otherwise in the title or jurat, or any other irregularity in the form thereof
, and may direct a memorandum to be made on the document that it has been so received.
4.
Where a special time is limited for filing affidavits, no affidavit filed after time shall be used, unless by leave of the
Judge.
5.
Except by leave of the Judge no order made ex-parte in Court founded on any affidavit shall be of any force unless
the affidavit on which the application was based was made before the order was applied for, and produced of filed at
the time of making the application.
6.
The party intending to use any affidavit in support of any application made by him shall give notice to the other
parties concerned.
7.
Every alteration in any account verified by affidavit shall be marked with the initials of the commissioner before
whom the affidavit is sworn and alterations shall not be made by erasure.
8.
Accounts, extract from registers, particulars of creditors’ debt, and other documents referred to by affidavit, shall not
be annexed to the affidavit or referred to as annexed, but shall be referred to as exhibits.
9.
Every certificate on an exhibit referred to in an affidavit signed by the commissioner before whom the affidavit is
sworn shall be marked with the short title of the cause or matter.
10.
The provisions of section 79 to 90 of the Evidence Act which set out provisions governing affidavits shall be
applicable under these rules.
Order 34
Non-Suit
1.
Where satisfactory evidence is not given entitling the claimant or defendant to the judgment of the Court, the Judge
may suo motu or on application non-suit the claimant, but the parties’ Legal Practitioners shall have the right to
make submissions about the propriety or otherwise of making such order.
2.
The Judge may upon a motion for a new trial or review of judgment, order a non-suit or judgment to be entered,
although no leave has been reserved at the trial.
Order 35
Judgment, Entry of Judgment
1.
The Judge shall at the Case Management conference or after trial, deliver Judgment in open court, and shall direct
judgment to be entered.
2.
Where any judgment is pronounced by a Judge the judgment shall be dated as of the day on which such judgment is
pronounced and shall take effect from that date unless the Judge otherwise orders.
3.
When any judgment is directed to be entered by an order made on application for judgments, the judgment shall,
unless the Judge otherwise orders, be dated as of the day on which the order is made and take effect from that date:
Provided that the order may direct that the judgment shall not be entered until a given date, in which case it shall
take effect from that date.
4.
The Judge at the time of making any judgment or order or at any time afterwards, may direct the time within which
the payment is to be made or other act is to be done reckoned from the date of the judgment or order or from some
other point of time, as the Judge deems fit and may order interest at a rate not less than 10% per annum to be paid
upon any judgment.
5.
Every judgment or order made in any cause or matter requiring any person to do an act shall state time the time or
the time after service of the judgment or order, within which the act is to be done; there shall be indorsed on the
judgment or order a memorandum by the Registrar in following words, viz:
"If you, the within-named. A.B., neglect to obey this judgment (or order) by the time therein limited, you will be
liable to process of execution for the purpose of compelling you to obey the said judgment (or order)" and same
shall be served upon the person required to obey the judgment or order.
6.
In any cause or matter where the defendant has appeared by Legal Practitioner, no order for entering judgment shall
be made by consent unless the consent of the defendant is given by his Legal Practitioner or agent.
7.
Where the defendant has no Legal Practitioner such order shall not be made unless the defendant gives his consent
in person in open court.
Order 36
Drawing up of Orders
1.
Every order shall bear the date on which it was made unless the Judge otherwise directs and shall take effect
accordingly.
2.
Where an order has been made not embodying any special terms, nor including any special directions, but simply
enlarging time for taking any proceeding or doing any act or giving leave-
(a)
for the issue of any writ other than a writ of attachment;
(b)
for the amendment of any writ or pleading;
(c)
for the filing of any document; or
(d)
for any act to be done by any officer of the Court other than a legal practitioner, it shall not be necessary to
draw up such order unless the Judge otherwise directs; but the production of a note or memorandum of such
order signed by a Judge shall be sufficient authority for such enlargement of time, issue , amendment filing or
other act. A direction that the costs of such order shall be costs in any cause or matter shall not be deemed to
be a special direction within the meaning of this rule.
3.
An order shall be sealed, and shall be marked with the name of the Judge by whom it is made.
Order 37
Transfers and Consolidation
I
Transfers
1.
Where the Chief Judge has in exercise of any powers conferred on him by any relevant law, ordered the transfer of
any action or matter from a lower court to the High Court, a copy of the order duly certified by the Registrar shall
forthwith be sent to the Registrar of the lower court and the latter shall transmit to the High Court the documents
referred to in the relevant law and other necessary documents and processes.
2.
(1)
On receipt by the court of the relevant documents and processes, the Registrar shall notify the party who
applied for the transfer or where the transfer was not made on the application of any party, the claimant, to
attend at the Registry and pay the fees for filing the documents. Such payments shall be without prejudice to
the question of how the costs shall ultimately be borne.
(2)
Such notification shall be effected by serving a notice personally on the party concerned, or, where an
address for service has been given by such party, at that address.
3.
(1)
The Registrar shall on payment of the prescribed fees, in any case not later than 7 days:
(a)
file the documents received from the Lower Court;
(b)
make an entry of the filing in the Cause Book; and
(c)
transmit the documents to the Chief Judge or such other Judge appointed by the Chief Judge.
(2)
The Registrar shall then give notice to the parties to attend in person or by counsel before a named Judge on
the day and at the time specified in the notice. The fees for the service of this notice shall be borne in the first
instance by the party who has paid the fees for filing as provided by Rule 2 of this Order.
4.
(1)
The Chief Judge or such other Judge appointed by him shall, not later than 14 days after receiving the
documents referred to Rule 3 of this order
(a)
hear the parties or their Legal Practitioners;
(b)
take cognizance of the documents; and thereafter;
(c)
give directions for the trial or hearing of the action or matter.
(2)
Directions given under this rule may include directions for the filing and service of pleadings.
5.
(1)
If the claimant fails to attend in compliance with a notice given under sub-rule 2 of Rule 3 of this order, the
Judge shall record his default and may, suo moto or on application, dismiss the action or matter. Upon an
application by the defendant to dismiss the action or matter, the Judge may either dismiss the action or matter
upon such term as may be just or make such other order on such terms as he deems just.
(2)
If the defendant fails or all of several defendants fail to attend in compliance with a notice given under sub-
rule 2 of Rule 3, the claimant may enter judgment with costs or obtain the order prayed for in the transferred
proceedings.
6.
In the preceding rule of this Order, the references to the claimant and the defendant shall in relation to proceedings
commenced otherwise than by writ, bey construed as references to the application and the respondent.
II
Consolidation
7.
(1)
The Judge may on application consolidate several actions pending before him where it appears that the I
ssues are the same in all the actions, and can therefore be properly tried and determined at the same time.
(2)
Where actions are pending before different Judges, a party desiring consolidation shall first apply to the
Chief Judge for transfer of the matter to a Judge before whom one or more of the matters is pending.
(3)
An order to consolidate may be made where two or more actions are pending between the same claimant and
the same defendant or between the same claimant and different defendants or between different claimants
and the same defendant or between different claimants and different defendants:
Provided that where the same claimant brings actions against different defendants, they will not be
consolidated without the consent of all parties unless the issues to be tried are identical.
(4)
Where an order for consolidation has been made, it shall be drawn up at the expense of the party or parties
who applied for consolidation and shall be recorded in the Cause Book.
Order 38
Interlocutory Order, etc.
1.
(1)
When by any contract a prima facie case of liability is established and there is alleged as a matter of defence
a right to be relieved wholly or partially from such liability, a Judge may make an order for the preservation
or interim custody of the subject- matter of the litigation or may order that the amount in dispute be brought
into Court or otherwise secured.
(2)
An application for an order under Rule 1 sub-rule 1 of this Order may be made by the claimant at any time
after his right thereto appears from the pleadings.
2.
Whenever an application shall be made before trial for an injunction or other order and on the opening of such
application, or at any time during the hearing thereof, it shall appear to the Judge that the matter in controversy in
the cause or matter is one which can be most conveniently dealt with by an early trial, without first going into the
whole merits on affidavit or other evidence for the purposes of the application, it shall be lawful for the judge to
make an order for such trial accordingly and in the meantime to make such order as the justice of the case may
require.
3.
The Judge may upon the application of any party make any order for the sale by any person or persons named in
such order and in such manner and on such terms as the Judge may deem desirable, of any goods, wares or
merchandise which may be of a perishable nature or likely to injure from keeping or which for any other just and
sufficient reason it may be desirable to sell at once.
4.
(1)
A Judge may upon the application of any party to an action or matter and upon such terms as may be just, to
make any order for the detention, preservation or inspection of any property or thing, being the subject of
such action or matter or as to which any question may arise therein and for all or any of the purposes
aforesaid authorize any persons to enter upon or into any land or building in the possession of any party to
such action or matter, and for all or any of the purposes aforesaid authorize any samples to be taken or any
observation to be made or experiment to be tried, which may be necessary or expedient for the purpose of
obtaining full information or evidence.
(2)
Where an order for the inspection of any property or thing is made on an application under this
rule(including an application made before any pleadings have been delivered in the action or matter) it
appears that inspection was requested in writing by the applicant and was not given, then, unless the Judge is
satisfied that the respondent did not unreasonably fail or refuse to permit the inspection, the Judge shall order
the costs to be paid by the respondent in any event and except where the respondent is a "Poor Person", shall
order the cost to be paid forthwith.
(3)
The Judge by whom any action or matter may be heard or tried, may inspect any property or thing concerning
which any question may arise therein.
5.
(1)
Where any property is in possession of the Court either before or after judgment and it has remained so for a
period of 12 months, a Judge may suo motu make an order for the sale of that property and the proceeds
thereof to be paid into an interest yielding account in a commercial bank directed by the Judge for the benefit
of the person that succeeds at the trial or on appeal.
(2)
The money paid after disposal of any goods or chattel shall be withdrawn from the bank by the successful
party who shall present to the Chief Registrar a certified true copy of the enrolment of the judgment.
6.
Where an action or counterclaim is filed to recover specific property and the party from whom such recovery is
sought does not dispute title but claims to retain the property by virtue of a lien or otherwise as security for any sum
of money, the Judge may at the pre- trial conference order that the party claiming to recover the property be at
liberty to pay into Court, to abide the event of the action, the amount of money in respect of which the lien or
security is claimed and such further sum if any, for interest and costs as the Judge may direct and that upon such
payment into Court being made, the property claimed be given up to the party claiming it.
7.
Where any real or personal estate or property forms the subject of any proceedings and the Judge is satisfied that
the same will be more than sufficient to answer all the claims thereon which ought to be provided for in such
proceedings, the judge may at any time after the commencement of the proceedings, allow the parties interested
therein or any one or more of them, the whole or part of the annual income of the real estate or a part of the personal
estate or property or the whole or part of the income therefore, up to such time as the Judge shall direct.
8.
In any action or matter in which an injunction has been or might have been claimed, the claimant may, before or
after judgment , apply for an injunction to restrain the defendant or respondent from the repetition or continuance of
the commission of the wrongful act or breach of contract complained of or from the commission of any injury
relating to the same property or right or arising out of the same contract and the Judge may grant the injunction
either upon or without terms as may be just.
9.
In every case in which an application is made for the appointment of a receiver by way of equitable execution, the
Judge in determining whether it is just or convenient that such appointment should be made shall have regard to the
amount of the debt claimed by the applicant, to the amount which may probably be obtained by the receiver and to
the probable costs of his appointment and may if the Judge shall deem fit, direct any inquiries on these or other
matters before making the appointment.
10.
Where an order is made directing a receiver to be appointed, unless otherwise ordered the person to be appointed
shall first give security, to be approved by the Judge, duly to account for what he shall receive as such receiver, and
to pay the same as the Judge shall direct; and the person so to be appointed shall, unless otherwise ordered be
allowed a proper salary or allowance. The security to be given shall be by guarantee or by an undertaking in Forms
30 and 31 with such variation as circumstances may require. The undertaking shall be filed in the Registry and from
part of the record of proceedings until it has been duly vacated.
11.
Where any judgment or order is pronounced or made in court appointing a person therein named to be receiver the
Court may adjourn the proceedings then pending, in order that the person named as receiver may give security as in
the last preceding rule mentioned, and may thereupon direct such judgment or order to be drawn up.
12.
When a receiver is appointed with a direction that he shall pass accounts, the Judge shall fix the days upon which he
shall (quarterly or at shorter periods) leave and pass such accounts, and also the days upon which he shall pay the
balances appearing due on the accounts so left, or such part of them as shall be certified as proper to be paid by him.
With respect to any such receiver as neglects to leave and pass his accounts and pay the balances at the times fixed
for the purpose as aforesaid, the Judge may from time to time when his subsequent accounts are produced to be
examined and passed, disallow the salary claimed by such receiver and may also charge him with interest at a rate
not exceeding twenty- five per cent per annum upon the balances so neglected to be paid by him during the time the
same appears to have remained in his hands.
13.
Receivers’ accounts shall be in Form 32 with such variations as circumstances may require.
14.
Every receiver shall deliver to the Registrar his account, together with an affidavit verifying the same in Form 33
with such variations as circumstances may require. An appointment shall thereupon be obtained by the claimant or
person having the conduct of the action for the purpose of passing such account.
15.
Where any receiver fails to leave any account or affidavit or to pass such account or to make any payment or
otherwise, the receiver or the parties or any of them, may be required to show cause why such account passed or
such payment was made or any other proper proceedings taken and the thereupon such directions as shall be proper
may be given, including the discharge of any receiver and appointment of another and payment of costs.
16.
The accounts of guardians shall be passed and verified in the same manner as is by this Order directed as to
receivers’ accounts.
Order 39
Motions and other applications
1.
(1)
Whereby these rules any application is authorized to be made to a Judge, such application shall be made by
motion which may be supported by affidavit and shall state under what rule of Court or Law the application
is brought.
(2)
Every such application shall be accompanied by a written address in support of the relief sought.
(3)
Every motion shall be served within 5 days of filling and where the application is not served within the
stipulated period, the Judge may strike out the application
(4)
Where the other party intends to oppose the application, he shall within 7 days of the service on him of such
application, file his written address and may accompany it with a counter affidavit.
(5)
The applicant may on being served with the written address of the opposing party file and serve an address in
reply on points of law within 7 days of being served. Where a counter affidavit is served on the applicant, he
may file further affidavit with his reply.
2.
No motion or application for a rule nisi or order to show cause shall be made in any action.
3.
(1)
Except where an application ex-parte is required or permitted under any law or rules, every motion shall be
on notice to the other party.
(2)
No application for an injunction shall be made ex-parte unless the applicant files with it a motion on notice in
respect of the application.
(3)
An order of injunction made upon an application ex- parte shall abate after 7 days.
(4)
A judge may upon application extend the effective period of an order made ex-parte if he is satisfied that the
motion on notice have been served and that such extension is necessary in the interest of justice or to prevent
an irreparable or serious mischief. The application for an extension shall be made before abatement of the
order and the extensions shall not be for a period exceeding 7 days from the day the extension is granted.
4.
(1)
Every motion on notice to set aside, remit or enforce an arbitral award shall state in general terms the grounds
of the application and where any such motion is founded on evidence by affidavit, a copy of any affidavit
intended to be used shall be served with the notice of motion.
(2)
The party relying on an award, on applying for its enforcement, shall supply:
(a)
the duly authenticated original award or a duly certified copy thereof;
(b)
the original arbitration agreement or a duly certified copy thereof.
(3)
An award made by an arbitrator or a decision reached at the Multi-Door Court House may by leave of the
Judge be enforced in the same manner as a judgment or order of Court.
(4)
An application to set aside or remit any award may be made at any time within 6 weeks after such award has
been made and published to the parties:
Provided that a Judge may by order extend the said time either before or after the same has elapsed.
5.
Unless the Judge grants special leave to the country, there must be at least 2 clear days between the service of all
processes in respect of a motion and the day named in the notice of hearing the motion.
6.
If on the hearing of a motion or other application the Judge shall be of opinion that any person to whom notice has
not been given ought to have had such notice, the Judge may either dismiss the motion or application or adjourn the
hearing thereof in order that such notice may be given upon such terms, if any, as the Judge may deem it fit to
impose.
7.
The hearing of any motion or application may from time to time be adjourned upon such terms, if any as the Judge
shall deem fit.
Provided that application for adjournment at the request of a party shall not be made more than twice.
8.
A claimant may file any application along with an originating process and may serve both on any defendant
simultaneously.
9.
Where the relationship of Legal Practitioner and client exists or has existed, a summons may be issued by the client
or his representative for the delivery of a cash account or the payment of moneys or delivery of securities, and a
Judge may from time to time order the respondent to deliver to the applicant a list of the moneys or securities which
he has in his custody or control on behalf of the applicant or to bring into Court the whole or any part of the same,
within such time as the Judge may order. In the event of the respondent alleging that he has a claim for costs, the
Judge may make such provision for the taxation and the payment or security thereof or the protection of the
respondent’s lien (if any) as he may deem fit.
10.
If during the taxation of any bill of costs or the taking of any account between Legal Practitioner and client, it shall
appear to the taxing officer that there must, in any event be moneys due from the Legal Practitioner to the client, the
taxing officer may from time to time make an interim certificate as to the amount so payable by the Legal
Practitioner. Upon the filling of such certificate, a Judge may order the moneys so certified to be forthwith paid to
the client or brought into Court.
Order 40
Application for Judicial Review
1.
(1)
An application for:
(a)
an order of mandamus, prohibition or certiorari; or
(b
an injunction restraining a person from acting in any office in which he is not entitled to act shall be
made by way of an application for judicial review in accordance with the provisions of this Order.
(2)
An application for a declaration or an injunction (not being an injunction in rule (1)(b) of this Rule) may be
made by way of an application for judicial review and the Court may grant the declaration or injunction if it
deems it just and convenient to grant it by way of judicial review, having regard to:
(a)
the nature of the matters in respect of which relief may be granted by way of an order of mandamus,
prohibition or certiorari;
(b)
the nature of the persons and bodies against whom relief may be granted by way of such an order;
(c)
all the circumstances of the case.
2.
On an application for judicial review any relief mentioned in Rule 1 may be claimed as an alternative or in addition
to any other relief so mentioned if it arises out of, relates to or is connected with the same matter.
3.
(1)
No application for judicial review shall be made unless the leave of the court has been obtained in accordance
with this rule.
(2)
An application for leave shall be made ex-parte to the Judge and shall be supported by:
(a)
a statement setting out the name and description of the applicant, the reliefs sought and the grounds on
which they are sought;
(b)
an affidavit verifying the facts relied on and
(c)
a written address in support of application for leave.
(3)
The Judge hearing an application for leave may allow the applicant’s statement to be amended, whether by
specifying different or additional grounds of relief or otherwise on such terms, if any, as he deems fit.
(4)
The Judge shall not grant leave unless he considers that the applicant has sufficient interest in the matter to
which the application relates.
(5)
Where leave is sought to apply for an order of certiorari to remove for the purpose of its being quashed any
judgment, order, conviction or proceedings which is subject to appeal and a time is limited for the bringing of
the appeal, the Judge may adjourn the application for leave until the appeal is determined or the time for
appealing has expired.
(6)
Where leave to apply for judicial review is granted, then:
(a)
If the relief sought is an order of prohibition or certiorari and the Judge so directs, the grant shall
operate as a stay of the proceedings to which the application relates until the determination of the
application or until the Judge otherwise orders;
(b)
if any other relief is sought, the Judge may at any time grant in the proceedings such interim relief as
could be granted in an action begun by writ;
(c)
The Judge may impose such terms as to costs and as to giving security as he deems fit.
4.
An application for judicial review shall be brought within 3 months of the date of occurrence of the subject of the
application.
5.
(1)
where leave has been granted the application may be made by motion or by originating summons.
(2)
The notice of motion or summons shall be served on all persons directly affected and where it relates to any
proceedings before a Judge and the object of the application is either to compel the Judge or an officer of the
court to do any act in relation to the proceedings, or to quash them or any order made therein, the notice or
summons shall also be served on the Clerk or Registrar of the court and where any objection to the conduct
of the judge is to be made, on the Judge.
(3)
Unless the Judge granting leave has otherwise directed, there shall be at least 7 days between the service of
the notice of motion or summons and the day named therein for the hearing.
(4)
A motion shall be entered for hearing within 14 days after the grant of leave.
(5)
An affidavit giving the names and address of and the places and dates of service on all persons who have
been served with the notice of motion or summons shall be filed before the motion or summons is entered for
hearing and if any person who ought to be served under this rule has not been served, the affidavit shall state
that fact and the reason for it and the affidavit shall be before the Judge on the hearing of the motion or
summons.
(6)
If on the hearing of the motion or summons the Judge is of opinion that any person who ought, whether under
this rule or otherwise, to have been served has not been served, the Judge may adjourn the hearing on such
terms, if any, as he may direct in order that the notice or summons may be served on that person.
6.
(1)
Copies of the statement in support of an application for leave under Rule 3 shall be served with the notice of
motion or summons and subject to sub-rule 2, no grounds shall be relied upon or any relief sought at the
hearing except the grounds and relief set out in the statement.
(2)
The Judge may on the hearing of the motion or summons allow the applicant to amend his statement whether,
by specifying different or additional grounds of relief or otherwise, on such terms, if any, as he deems fit and
may allow further affidavits to be used if they deal with new matters arising out of an affidavit of any other
party to the application.
(3)
Where the applicant intends to ask to be allowed to amend his statement or to use further affidavit, he shall
give notice of his intentions and of any proposed amendment to every other party.
(4)
Each party to the application shall supply to every other party a copy of every affidavit which he proposes to
use at the hearing including, in the case of the applicant, the affidavit in support of the application for leave
under Rule 3.
7.
On an application for judicial review the Judge may, subject to Rule 2, award damages to the applicant if:
(a)
he has included in the statement in support of his application for leave under Rule 3 a claim for damages
arising from any matter to which the application relates and
(b)
the Judges is satisfied that if the claim had been made in an action begun by the applicant at the time of
making his application, he could have been awarded damages.
8.
Any interlocutory application in proceedings on an application for judicial review may be made to the Judge.
9.
(1)
On the hearing of any motion or summons under Rule 5, any person who desires to be heard on the motion or
summons, and appears to the Judge to be a proper person to be heard, shall be heard notwithstanding that he
has not been served with notice of the motion or the summons.
(2)
Where the relief sought is or includes an order of certiorari to remove any proceedings for the purpose of
quashing them, the applicant may not question the validity of any order, warrant, commitment, conviction,
inquisition or record unless before the hearing of the motion or summons he has filed a copy thereof verified
by affidavit or accounts for his failure to do so to the satisfaction of the judge hearing the motion or
summons.
(3)
Where an order of certiorari is made in any such case as is referred to in sub-rule 2, the order shall, subject to
sub-rule 4, direct that the proceedings shall be quashed forthwith on their removal into Court.
(4)
Where the relief sought is an order of certiorari and the Judge is satisfied that there are grounds for quashing
the decision to which the application relates, the Judge may, in addition to quashing it, remit the matter to the
Court, tribunal or authority concerned with a direction to reconsider it and reach a decision in accordance
with the findings of the Judge.
(5)
Where the relief sought is a declaration, an injunction or damages and the Judge considers that it should not
be granted on an application for judicial review but might have been granted if it had been sought in an action
begun by writ by the applicant at the time of making his application, the Judge may, instead of refusing the
application, order the proceedings to continue as if they had been begun by writ.
10.
No action or proceeding shall be brought or prosecuted against any person in respect of any thing done in obedience
to an order of mandamus
11.
Where there is more than one application pending against several persons in respect of the same matter and on the
same grounds, the Judge may order the applications to be consolidated
Order 41
Jurisdiction of Chief Registrar
1.
In this Order, any reference to the Chief Registrar means the Chief Registrar of the High Court and includes the
Deputy Chief Registrar.
2.
The Chief Registrar may transact all such business and exercise all such authority and jurisdiction as may be
transacted or exercised by a Judge in respect of the following matters:
(a)
applications for the taxation and delivery of bills of costs and applications for the delivery by any Legal
Practitioner of deeds, documents and papers;
(b)
the taking of an account in any case where a Judge has ordered that the account be taken by the Chief
Registrar;
(c)
the taxation of bills of costs;
(d)
applications leading to the issue of the grant of probate of the Wills or letters of Administration of the estates
of deceased persons
3.
If any matter appears to the Chief Registrar proper for the decision of a Judge, he may refer the same to the Chief
Judge or the Judge who referred the matter to the Chief Registrar. The Chief Judge or the Judge may either dispose
of the matter or refer the same back to the Chief Registrar with such directions as he may deem fit.
4.
Any person affected by an order or decision of the Chief Registrar in the exercise of the jurisdiction conferred upon
him by this Order may appeal therefrom to a Judge. Such appeal shall be by notice in writing to attend before the
Judge without a fresh summons within five (5) days after the decision complained of or such further time as may be
allowed by the Judge. Unless otherwise ordered, there shall be at least two (2) clear days between service of the
notice of appeal and the day of hearing. An appeal from the decision of the Chief Registrar shall not operate as a
stay of proceedings unless so ordered by the Judge.
5.
Lists of matters to be heard by the Chief Registrar shall be made out and published by being posted on the courts
notice boards.
6.
In any proceedings before the Chief Registrar under the jurisdiction vested in him by this Order, a Legal Practitioner
may represent any party.
7.
Except as otherwise provided for in these rules, the directions to be given for or concerning any proceedings before
the Chief Registrar shall require no particular form, but the result of such proceedings shall be stated in a concise
certificate.
8.
The certificate of the Chief Registrar regarding accounts and inquires shall not, unless the circumstances of the case
render it necessary, set out the judgment or order or any documents and evidence or reasons but shall refer to the
judgment or order, documents and evidence or particular paragraphs thereof, so that it may appear upon what the
result stated in the certificate is founded.
9.
(1)
In case of Accounts and Inquires the certificate of the Chief Registrar shall be in Form 34 with such
variations as the circumstances may require. The certificate shall
(a)
state the result of the account and not set the same out by way of schedule,
(b)
refer to the account verified by the affidavit filed
(c)
specify by the numbers attached to the items in the account which (if any) of such items have been
disallowed or varied
(d)
state what additions (if any) have been made by way of surcharge or otherwise
(e)
where the account verified by the affidavit has been so altered that it is necessary to have a fair
transcript of the account so altered, such transcript may be required to be made by the party
prosecuting the judgment or order and shall then be referred to by the certificate.
(f)
the accounts and transcripts (if any) referred to by certificates shall be filed therewith.
10.
Every certificate with the accounts (if any) to be filed therewith shall be transmitted by the Chief Registrar to the
Registry for filing and shall thenceforth be binding on all parties to the proceedings unless discharged or varied upon
an application made to a Judge before the expiration of 8 clear days after the filing of the certificate.
11.
When taxing a bill of costs the Chief Registrar shall insert in red ink against every item disallowed, reduced or
altered by him the substances of the modification made by him and at the bottom of the bill of costs he shall certify
the net result of the taxation. The bill of costs shall then be transmitted by the Chief Registrar to the Registry for
filing and the provisions of Rule 10 of this Order shall apply in respect of such certificate.
12.
The Judge may, if the special circumstances of the case require, upon an application direct a certificate to be
discharged or varied at any time after the same has because binding on the parties.
Order 42
Habeas corpus, Attachment for Contempt
I
Habeas corpus
1.
An application for an Order of Habeas Corpus Ad Subjiciendum shall be made to the Court, except that:
(a)
in vacation or at anytime when no Judge is sitting in Court it may be made to Judge sitting otherwise than in
court;
(b)
in cases where the application is made on behalf of a child, it shall be made in first instance to a Judge sitting
otherwise than in Court.
2.
(1)
The application may be made ex-parte and shall be accompanied by an affidavit by the person restrained
showing that it is made at his instance and setting out the nature of the restraint.
(2)
Where the person restrained is unable owing to the restraint to make the affidavit, the application shall be
accompanied by an affidavit to the like effect made by some other person which shall state that the person
restrained is unable to make the affidavit himself.
3.
(1)
A Judge to whom the application is made may make the order forthwith.
(2)
Where the application is made to Judge sitting otherwise than in court he may direct the order to issue or that
an application therefore be made by notice of motion to the Judge or to a Judge.
(3)
A Judge to whom the application is made may adjourn it so that notice thereof may be given to the jailer.
(4)
Where the person detained is produced before a Judge he may discharge him immediately with or without
conditions.
4.
(1)
The summons or notice of motion aforesaid shall be served on the person against whom the order is sought
and on such other persons as the judge may direct.
(2)
Unless the judge otherwise directs, there shall be at least 2 clear days between the service of the notice and
the date named for the hearing of the application.
5.
Every party to the application shall supply to the other party or parties copies of the affidavits which he proposes to
use at the hearing of the application.
6.
(1)
The order or notice of motion may be served personally or by courier on a jailer where the person is confined
or restrained or on any other public official and copies of the order or motion may be served in like manner
on each person connected with or having authority over the place of confinement or restraint.
(2)
The order shall contain the date on which the person restrained is to be brought before a Judge and that in
default of obedience, proceedings for attachment of the party disobeying will be taken.
7.
Upon service of the order or notice of motion on the jailer, he shall within 2 days file a statement stating the reasons
for the detention, the period of the detention and any other matter that may be directed by the judge. The statement
shall be verified by an affidavit deposed to by the jailer.
8.
(1)
Where the prisoner is brought up in accordance with the order, his Legal Practitioner shall be heard first, then
the Legal Practitioner for the State and then the Legal Practitioner for the prisoner in reply.
(2)
Where the prisoner is not brought in accordance with the order, a judge may upon the application of his legal
practitioner order that he be discharged or make any other order.
II
Attachment for contempt
9.
(1)
The procedure in applications for attachment for contempt of court in cases to which this rule applies shall be
the same as for applications for an order for judicial review under Order 40 so far as may be applicable.
(2)
The notice of motion shall be personally served unless the Judge dispenses with such service.
(3)
This rule applies to cases where the contempt is committed:
(a)
in connection with proceedings to which this Order relates;
(b)
in connection with criminal proceedings ;
(c)
subject to the provisions of the Sheriff and Civil Process Act, any proceedings in the High Court or
where the contempt consists of disobedience to an Order of the Court;
(d)
in connection with the proceedings in an inferior Court.
Provided that this rule shall not apply where the contempt is committed in facie curiae
10.
When an order enforceable by committal has been made against a judgment debtor, and if the order is for delivery of
goods without the option of paying their value or is in the nature of an injunction the Registrar shall when the order
is drawn up immediately endorse it as follows:
Notice of Consequence of Disobedience to Court Order.
To ……………………………. Of …………………………
Take Notice that unless you obey the direction (s) contained in this order you will be guilty of contempt of
court and will be liable to be committed to prison.
Date this …………………. day of ………………………….. 20
……………………….
Registrar
11.
Upon service of the application for committal issued in a case to which Rule 9 of this Order applies, the Respondent
shall before the return date stated in the application file a statement stating the reasons why an order for attachment
should not be issued. The statement shall be verified by an affidavit deposed to by the respondent.
12.
Every order of attachment issued in a case to which Rule 9 of this Order applies shall be made returnable before the
Judge. If a return of non est inventus (not found) is made, a subsequent order or orders may be issued on the return
of the previous order.
Order 43
Interpleader
1.
Relief by way of Interpleader may be granted where the person seeking relief ("the applicant") is under liability for
any debt, money, goods, or chattels, for or in respect of which he is, or expected to be sued by two or more parties ("
the claimants") making adverse claims thereto:
Provided that where the applicant is a Sheriff or other officer charged with the execution of process by or under the
authority of the High Court, the provisions of Section 34 of the Sheriffs and Civil Process Act and the rules made
under it shall apply.
2.
(1)
An Applicant seeking relief by way of interpleader shall file an Interpleader summons supported by an
affidavit calling on the Claimants to appear and state the nature and particular of their claims, and either to
maintain or relinquish them
(2)
An Applicant must satisfy the Judge by affidavit or otherwise that he:
(a)
claims no interest in the subject matter in dispute other than for charges or costs;
(b)
does not collude with any of the claimants and
(c)
is willing to pay or transfer the subject matter into court or to dispose of it as the Judge may direct.
3.
The applicant shall not be disentitled to relief by reason only that the titles of the claimants have not a common
origin, but are adverse to and independent of one another.
4.
Where the applicant is a defendant, application for relief may be made at any time after service of the originating
process.
5.
If the application is made by a defendant in an action the Judge may stay all further proceedings in the action.
6.
If the claimants appear in pursuance of the summons, the Judge may order either that any claimant be made a
defendant in any action already commenced in respect of the subject matter in dispute in lieu of or in addition to the
applicant or that an issue between the claimants be stated and tried, and in the latter case may direct which of the
claimants is to be claimant and which is to be defendant.
7.
Where the question is a question of law and the facts are not in dispute, the Judge may either decide the questions
without directing the trial of an issue or order that a special case be stated for the opinion of the Judge. If a special
case is stated, Order 28 shall as far as applicable apply thereto.
8.
If a claimant, having been duly served with a summons calling on him to appear and maintain or relinquish his
claim, does not appear in pursuance of the summons or having appeared, neglects or refuses to comply with any
order made after his appearance, the Judge may make an order declaring him and all persons claiming under him,
for ever barred against the applicant and persons claiming under him but the order shall not affect the rights of the
claimants as between themselves.
9.
The Judge may, in or for the purpose of any interpleader proceedings, make all such orders as to costs and all other
matters as may be just.
Order 44
Computation of Time
1.
Where by any law or order made by a Judge a time is appointed or limited for the doing of any act, the period shall
be reckoned:
(a)
as excluding the day on which the order is made or on which the event occurs;
(b)
where the last day of the period is a holiday the time shall continue until the end of the next day following
which is not a public holiday;
(c)
where the act is required to be done within a period which does not exceed six (6) days, holidays shall be left
out of account in computing the period.
2.
In this order holiday means a day which is a Sunday or a public holiday.
3.
No pleading, summons, motions, orders, originating process, documents and other processes shall be served before
6.00a.m or after 6.00p.m. Service effected after 6.00p.m shall be deemed to have been effected the following day,
provided that service effected after 6.00p.m on Saturday shall be deemed to have been effected on the following
Monday.
4.
The Judge may, as often as he deems fit, and either before or after the expiration of the time appointed by these rules
or by any judgment or order of the court, extend or adjourn the time for doing any act on taking any proceedings.
Provided that any party who defaults in performing an act within the time authorized by the Judge or under these
rules, shall pay to the Court an addition fee of N200.00 (Two hundred naira) for each day of such default at the time
compliance.
Order 45
Miscellaneous Provisions
I
Court Sitting and Vacation
1.
Subject to the provision of the Law, the Judge may, in his discretion, appoint any day or days and any place or
places from time to time for the hearing of causes, as circumstances require.
2.
The sittings of the Judge for the hearing of causes shall ordinary be public but subject to the provision of the
Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the Judge may for special reasons, hear any particular cause or
matter in the presence only of the parties, with their Legal practitioner if any, and the officers of Court.
3.
The several offices of the Court shall be open at such times as the Chief Judge shall direct.
4.
Subject to the directions of the Chief Judge, sittings of the High Court for the dispatch of civil matters will be held
on every weekday except:
(a)
on any public holidays;
(b)
during the week beginning with Easter Monday;
(c)
during the period beginning on Christmas eve and ending on the 2nd January next following;
(d)
during the long vacation. i.e. the period beginning middle of July and ending on a date not more then 6 weeks
later as the Chief Judge may by notification in the Gazette appoint.
5.
(1)
Notwithstanding the provisions of Rule 4, any cause or matter may be heard by a Judge during any of the
periods mentioned in paragraphs (b), (c) or (d) of Rule 4 (except on a Sunday or public holiday) where such
cause or matter is urgent or a Judge, at the request of all the parties concerned, agrees to hear a cause or
matter.
(2)
An application for an urgent hearing shall be made by motion ex-parte and the decision of the Judge on such
an application shall be final
6.
The time for filing and service of pleadings shall not run during the annual vacation unless otherwise directed by the
Judge.
II
General
7.
All fines, forfeitures, pecuniary penalties and costs ordered to be paid may be levied by distress, seizure and sale of
the movable and immovable property of the person making default in payment.
8.
When the publication of any notice is required the same may be made by advertisement in the Gazette, unless
otherwise provided in any particular case by any rule of Court or otherwise ordered by the Judge.
9.
A document shall not be filed unless it has indorsed on it the name and number of the cause, the date of filing and
whether filed by claimant or defendant; and on being filed such indorsement shall be initialed by the Registrar and
recorded in the Process Register.
10.
All warrants and orders of whatever description shall be sufficiently addressed for execution by being directed to the
Sheriff; but this provision shall not prevent any order or warrant from being addressed to a person by name or to
person named and to officers of Court generally or to a Local Government Authority.
11.
No fees are to be taken in respect of any proceedings where such fees would be payable by any Government
Department:
Provided however that when any person is ordered to pay the costs of the State or of any Government Department in
any case, whether criminal or civil, all fees which would have been payable but for the provisions of this rule shall
be taken as paid and shall be recoverable from such person.
12.
The Regulations regarding fees shall govern the payment and disposal of fees and the duties of Court officers in
regard thereto.
13.
Where no provision is made by these rules or by any other written law, the Court shall adopt such procedure as will
in its view do substantial justice between the parties concerned.
Order 46
Arrest of Absconding Defendant
1.
The following rules shall apply to proceedings under section 77 of the law.
2.
If in any action the defendant is about to leave Nigeria the claimant may, either at the institution of the suit or at any
time thereafter until final judgment, apply by ex-parte motion to the judge for an order that the defendant do show
cause why security should not be taken for his appearance to answer and satisfy any judgment that may be passed
against him in the suit.
3.
(1)
If the Judge after making such investigation as he may consider necessary shall be of opinion that there is
probable cause for believing that the defendant is about to leave Nigeria and that by reason thereof the
execution of any judgment which may be made against him is likely to be obstructed or delayed, the judge
shall issue a warrant to bring the defendant before him, that he may show cause why he should not give good
and sufficient bail for his appearance.
(2)
The defendant shall be brought to court within 2 days of the execution of the warrant.
4.
If the defendant fails to show cause, the Judge shall order him to give bail for his appearance at any time when
called upon while the suit is pending and until execution or satisfaction of any judgment that may be passed against
him in the suit or to give bail for the satisfaction of such judgment, and the surety or sureties shall undertake in
default of such appearance or satisfaction to pay any sum of money that may be adjudged against the defendant in
the suit with costs.
5.
(1)
Where a defendant offers to deposit a sum of money in lieu of bail for his appearance, sufficient to answer
the claim against him, with costs of the suit, the Judge may accept such deposit and direct that the deposit be
paid into and interest yielding account in a bank.
(2)
Where a defendant offers security other than money in lieu of bail for this appearance, Sufficient to answer
the claim against him, the Judge may accept such security and make such order as he may deem fit in the
circumstance.
6.
(1)
If the defendant fails to furnish security or offer a sufficient deposit, the Judge may commit him into custody
until the decision of the suit or if judgment has been given against the defendant until the execution of the
judgment.
(2)
Committal to custody under this rule shall not exceed a period of six (6) months.
(3)
The Judge may at any time upon reasonable cause being shown and upon such terms as to security or
otherwise as may seem just, release the defendant.
7.
The expenses incurred for the subsistence in prison of the person so arrested shall be paid by the claimant in the
action in advance, and the amount so disbursed may be recovered by the claimant in the suit, unless the Judge shall
otherwise order. The Judge may release the person so imprisoned on failure by the claimant to pay the subsistence
money, or in case of serious illness order his removal to hospital.
Order 47
Proceedings in Forma Pauperis
1.
This Order shall apply to proceedings in respect of which there is no statutory provision for Legal Aid.
2.
A Judge may admit a person to sue or defend informa pauperis if satisfied that his means do not permit him to
employ legal representation in the prosecution of his case and that he has reasonable grounds for suing or defending
as the case may be.
3.
(1)
A person seeking relief under this Order shall write an application to Chief Judge accompanied by an
affidavit, signed and sworn to by the applicant himself, stating that by reason of poverty he is unable to
afford the services of Legal Practitioner.
(2)
If in the opinions of Chief Judge the application is worthy of consideration, the Chief Judge shall appoint a
Legal Practitioner to act for the applicant.
(3)
Where a legal practitioner is so appointed the applicant shall not discharge the Legal Practitioner except with
the leave of the Chief Judge.
4.
Court fees payable by a person admitted to sue or defend in forma pauperis may be remitted either in whole or in
part as a Judge may deem fit and a person a so admitted to sue or defend shall not, unless the Judge otherwise
orders, be liable to pay or be entitled to receive any costs.
5.
(1)
The legal practitioner shall not, except by leave of the Chief Judge, take or agree to take any payment
whatsoever from the applicant or any other person connected with the applicant or the action taken or
defended thereunder.
(2)
If the applicant pays or agrees to pay any money to any person whatsoever either in connection with his
application or the action taken or defended thereunder, the order appointing the Legal Practitioner shall be
revoked.
(3)
If the Legal Practitioner assigned to the applicant discovers that the applicant is possessed of means beyond
those stated in the affidavit, if any, he shall at once report the matter in writing to the Registrar.
6.
(1)
The Chief Judge may at any time revoke the order granting the application and thereupon the applicant shall
not be entitled to the benefit of this order in any proceedings to which the application relates unless otherwise
ordered.
(2)
Neither the applicant nor the Legal Practitioner assigned to him shall discontinue, settle or compromise the
action without the leave of a Judge.
7.
The Judge may order payment to be made to the Legal Practitioner out of any money recovered by the applicant or
may charge in favour of the Legal Practitioner upon any property recovered by the applicant, such sum as in all the
circumstances may deem fit.
8.
Every order, notice or application on behalf of the applicant, except an application for the discharge of his Legal
Practitioner, shall be signed by his Legal Practitioner, who shall take care that no application or notice is made or
given without reasonable cause.
9.
No person shall be permitted to appeal in forma pauperis except by leave of the trial or the appellate court and then
only on grounds of law; but if so permitted the provisions of this order shall apply mutatis mutandis to all
proceedings on the appeal.
Order 48
Change of legal practitioner
1.
Every Legal Practitioner who shall be engaged in any cause or matter shall be bound to conduct same on behalf of
the claimant or defendant as the case may be, by or for whom he shall have been so engaged until final judgment,
unless allowed for any special reason to cease acting therein.
2.
An application for a change of Legal Practitioner or withdrawal may be made by the claimant or defendant or the
Legal Practitioner as the case may be, not less than 3 clear days before the date fixed for hearing.
3.
Where the application is made by a Legal Practitioner, it shall be served on all parties to the cause or matter and
where applicable also on the outgoing Legal Practitioner if he is not the applicant.
Order 49
Costs
1.
(1)
In fixing the amount of costs, the principle to be observed is that the party who is in the right is to be
indemnified for the expenses to which he has been necessarily put in the proceedings, as well as compensated
for his time and effort in coming to court. Such expenses shall include:
(a)
the cost of legal representation and assistance of the successful party to the extent that the judge
determines that the amount of such cost is reasonable
(b)
the travel and other expense of parties and witnesses to the extent that the Judge determines that the
amount of such expenses is reasonable and such other expenses that the judge determines ought to be
recovered, having regard to the circumstances of the case
(2)
When costs are ordered to be paid, the amount of such costs shall, if practicable, be summarily determined by
the Judge at the time of delivering the judgment or making the order.
(3)
When the Judge deems it to be impracticable to determine summarily the amount of any costs which he has
adjudged or ordered to be paid, all questions relating thereto shall be referred by the Judge to a taxing officer
for taxation.
2.
Where an offer of settlement made in the course of Case Management or ADR is rejected by a party and the said
party eventually succeeds at trial but is awarded orders not in excess of the offer of settlement earlier made, the
winning party shall pay the costs of the losing party from the time of the offer of settlement up to judgment.
3.
In any cause or matter in which security for costs is required, the security shall be such amount and be given at such
times and in such manner and form as the Judge shall direct.
4.
A claimant ordinarily resident out of the jurisdiction may be ordered to give security for costs, though he may be
temporarily resident within the jurisdiction.
5.
In actions brought by persons resident out of the jurisdiction, when the claimant’s claim is founded on a judgment or
order or on a bill of exchange or other negotiable instrument, the power to require the claimant to give security for
costs shall be exercised at the Judge’s discretion.
6.
Where a bond is to be given as security for costs, it shall, unless the judge otherwise directs, be given to the party or
person requiring the security and not to an officer of the court.
7.
Subject to the provisions of any applicable law and these Rules, the costs of and incidental to all proceedings in the
High Court, including the administration of estates and trusts, shall be at the discretion of the Judge, and the Judge
shall have full power to determine by whom and to what extent the costs are to be paid.
8.
The Judge may order any costs to be paid out of any fund or property to which a suit or proceedings relates.
9.
Where the Judge orders costs to be paid or security to be given for costs by any party, the Judge may order all
proceedings costs by or on behalf of that party in the same suit or proceeding or connected with it, to be stayed until
the costs are paid or security given accordingly, but such order shall not supersede the use of any other lawful
method of enforcing payment.
10.
(1)
Costs may be dealt with by the Judge at any stage of the proceedings.
(2)
Costs when ordered becomes payable forthwith, and shall be paid within 7 days of the order, otherwise the
defaulting party or his Legal Practitioner may be denied further audience in the proceedings.
11.
In addition to any penalty payable for default under these rules, the costs of and occasioned by any application to
extend the time fixed by the rules or any direction or order thereunder, for delivering or filing any document or
doing any other act, including the costs of any Order made on the application, shall be borne by the party making the
application unless the Judge otherwise orders.
12.
The Judge in exercising his discretion as to costs shall take into account any offer or contribution made by any of the
parties and any payment into court and the amount of such payment.
13.
(1)
Where in any cause or matter anything is done or omission is made improperly or unnecessarily by or on
behalf of a party, the Judge may direct that any costs to that party in respect of it shall not be allowed to him
and that any costs occasioned by it to other parties shall be paid by him to them.
(2)
Without prejudice to the generality of sub-rule 1 of this rule, the Judge, shall for the purpose of that sub-rule
have regard in particular to the following matters, that is to say;
(a)
the omission to do anything the doing of which would have been calculated to save costs;
(b)
the doing of anything calculated to occasion or in a manner or at a time calculated to occasion
unnecessary costs;
(c)
any unnecessary delay in the proceedings.
(3)
The Judge may instead of giving a direction under sub-rule 1 of this rule in relation to anything done or any
omission made, direct the taxing officer to inquire into it and if it appears to him that such a direction as
aforesaid should have been given in relation to it, to act as if the appropriate direction had been given.
14.
(1)
Subject to the following provisions of this rule, where in any proceedings costs are incurred improperly or
without reasonable cause or are wasted by undue delay or by any other misconduct or default, the Judge may
make against any Legal Practitioner whom he considers to be responsible whether personally or though a
servant or agent an order;
(a)
disallowing the costs as between the Legal Practitioner and his client; and
(b)
directing the legal practitioner to pay to his client costs which the client has been ordered to pay to
other parties to the proceedings; or
(c)
directing the legal practitioner personally to indemnify such other parties against costs payable by
them.
(2)
The provisions of Rule 13 sub-rule I shall apply where proceedings in court cannot conveniently proceed or
fails or are adjourned without useful progress being made;
(a)
because of the failure of the Legal Practitioner to attend in person or by a proper representative; or
(b)
because of the failure of the Legal Practitioner to deliver any document for the use of the Court which
ought to have been delivered or to be prepared with any proper evidence or account or otherwise to
proceed.
(3)
No order under this rule shall be made against a Legal Practitioner unless he has been given a reasonable
opportunity to appear before the Judge to show cause why the order should not be made.
(4)
The Judge may direct that notice of any proceedings or order against a Legal Practitioner under this rule shall
be give to his client in such manner as may be specified in the direction.
(5)
If, on the taxation of costs to be paid out of a fund, one-sixth or more of the amount of the bill for those costs
is taxed off, the Legal Practitioner whose bill it is shall not be allowed the fees to which he would otherwise
be entitled for drawing the bill and for attending the taxation.
15.
Every bill of costs (other than a bill delivered by a Legal Practitioner to his client which falls to be taxed under the
Legal Practitioners Act ) shall be referred to the Registrar for taxation and may be taxed by him or such other taxing
officer as the chief judge may appoint.
16.
The party applying for taxation shall file the bill and give notice to any other parties entitled to be heard on the
taxation, and shall at the same, if he has not already done so, supply them with a copy of the bill.
17.
A taxing officer shall have power to tax any costs the taxation of which is required by any law or directed by order
of a Judge.
18.
A taxing officer may, in the discharge of this functions with respect to taxation of costs;
(a)
take an account of any dealings in money made in connection with the payment of the costs being taxed, if
the Judge so directs;
(b)
require any party represented jointly with any other party in any proceedings before him to be separately
represented.
(c)
examine any witness in those proceedings;
(d)
direct the production of any document which may be relevant in connection with those proceedings.
19.
(1)
A taxing officer may;
(a)
extend the period within which a party is required by or under these rules to begin proceedings for
taxation or to do anything in or in connection with proceedings before that officer;
(b)
where no period is specified by or under these rules or by the Judge for the doing of anything in or in
connection with such proceedings, specify the period within which the thing is to be done.
(2)
Where an order of the Court specifies a period within which anything is to be done by or before a taxing
officer, then unless the Judge otherwise directs, the taxing officer may from time to time extend the period so
specified on such terms as he deems fit.
(3)
A taxing officer may extend any such period as is referred to in the foregoing provisions of this Rule
although the application for extension is not made until after the expiration of that period
20.
Where a party entitled to be paid costs is also liable to pay costs, the taxing officer may;
(a)
tax the costs which that party is liable to pay and set off the amount allowed against the amount he is entitled
to be paid and direct payment of any balance; or
(b)
delay the issue of a certificate for the costs he is entitled to be paid until he has paid or tendered the amount
he is liable to pay.
21.
(1)
A party entitled to require any costs to be taxed shall begin proceedings for the taxation of those costs by
filing in the registry a bill of costs and obtain a day and time for the taxation thereof. Such party shall give at
least 7 days notice to every other party of the day and time appointed for taxation proceedings and at the
same time serve a copy of his bill of costs to the other party if he has not already done so.
(2)
A notice under sub-rule 1 of this Rule need not be given to any party who has not entered an appearance or
taken any part in the proceedings which gave rise to the taxation proceedings.
22.
(1)
In any bill of costs the professional charge and the disbursements shall be entered in separate columns and
every column shall be cast before the bill is left for taxation.
(2)
Before a bill of costs is left for taxation it shall be indorsed with:
(a)
the name or firm and business address , e-mail and telephone number of the Legal Practitioner whose
bill it is; and
(b)
if the Legal Practitioner is the agent of another, with the name or firm and business address, e-mail
and telephone number of that other Legal Practitioner.
23.
(1)
If any party entitled to be heard in any taxation proceedings does not attend within a reasonable time after the
time appointed for the taxation, the taxing officer, if satisfied by affidavit or otherwise that the party had due
notice of the time appointed, may proceed with the taxation.
(2)
The taxing officer by whom any taxation proceedings are being conducted may, if he deems it necessary,
adjourn those proceedings from time to time.
24.
(1)
Subject to Rule 21, and the following provisions of this rule, the scale of costs contained in Appendix II of
the High Court of Lagos State (Fees Law) for the time being in force together with the notes and general
provisions contained in that Appendix, shall apply to the taxation of all costs incurred in relation to
contentious business done after the commencement of these rules.
(2)
Where the amount of a Legal Practitioner’s remuneration in respect of non- contentious business connected
with sales, purchases, leases, mortgages and other matters of conveyancing or in respect of any other non-
contentious business is regulated, in the absence of agreement to the contrary, the amount of the costs to be
allowed on taxation in respect of the like contentious business shall be the same, notwithstanding anything in
the scale contained in the High Court of Lagos State (Fees) Law.
25.
Upon the completion of the taxation of any bill of costs the taxing officer shall certify the result of his taxation
including the costs thereof.
26.
The fees payable on taxation shall be paid by the party on whose application the bill is taxed and shall allowed as
part of the bill.
27.
Any party to any taxation proceedings who is dissatisfied with the allowance and disallowance in whole or in part
of any item by a taxing officer or with the amount allowed by a taxing officer in respect of any item, may apply to a
Judge for an order to review the taxation as to that item.
28.
(1)
An application under the preceding rules shall be made by summons at any time within 14 days after the
taxing officer’s certificate.
(2)
Unless the Judge otherwise directs, no further evidence shall be received on the hearing of an application
under this rule, and no ground of objection shall be raised which was not raised on taxation but, save as
aforesaid, on the hearing of any such application the Judge may exercise all such powers and discretion as are
vested in the taxing officer in relation to the subject matter of the application.
(3)
On an application under this rule the Judge may make such order as the circumstances require and in
particular may order the taxing officer’s decision to be amended or, except where the dispute as to the item
under review is as to amount only, order the item to be remitted to the same or another taxing officer for
taxation.
Order 50
I
Business in Chambers
1.
In any proceeding before a Judge in Chambers, any party may, if he so desires, be represented by a Legal
Practitioner.
2.
Unless the opposite party or his counsel objects, the Judge may, on application, conduct any proceeding, except
actual trial, in chambers, and may also on application, adjourn any such proceeding from Court to Chambers or vice
versa.
II
Proceeding relating to person under legal disability
3.
Upon application for the appointment of guardians of infants and allowance for maintenance, the evidence shall
show;
(a)
the ages of the infants;
(b)
the nature and amount of the infants’ fortunes and incomes; and
(c)
what relations the infants have.
4.
At any time during the proceeding under any judgment or order, the Judge may, if he deems fit, require a guardian to
be appointed for any person under legal disability not adjudged a lunatic, who has been served with notice of such
judgment or order.
III
Further Consideration
5.
Where any matter originating in Chambers shall, at the original or any subsequent hearing have been adjourned for
further consideration in chambers, such matter may, after the expiration of 8 days and within 14 days from the filing
of the certificate, be brought on for further consideration by a summons to be taken out by the party having the
conduct of the matter, after the expiration of such 14 days by a summons to be taken out by any other party. Such
summons shall be in the form following:
“That this matter, the further consideration whereof was adjourned by the order of the……………on….day
of…………20 …… may be further considered", and shall be served 7 clear days before the return:
Provided that this Rule shall not apply to any matter, the further consideration whereof shall, at the original or any
subsequent hearing, have been adjourned in Court.
IV
Registering and drawing up of orders in chambers and Costs
6.
Notes shall be kept of all proceeding in the Judges’ Chambers with proper dates, so that all such proceeding in such
cause or matter may appear consecutively and in chronological order, with a short statement of the question or
points decided or ruled at every hearing.
7.
Orders made in chambers shall, unless the Judge otherwise directs, be drawn up by the Registrar and signed by the
Judge. Such order shall be entered in the same manner as orders made in Court.
8.
Subject to the provisions of the Law and of these Rules, the costs of, and incident to all proceeding in Chambers
shall be at the discretion of the judge.
9.
(1)
Where any party to proceeding in Chambers does not intend to accept the decision of the Judge in Chambers
as final, he shall forthwith request to have the summons adjourned into Court for argument. If such request is
refused, the party may proceed by way of motion with notice in court to discharge, set aside or vary the order
made or the judgment given or order made in Chambers
(2)
The notice of motion shall be filed not later than 7 days after the drawing up of the Order made in Chambers
unless the Court grants an extension of time on good and sufficient reason being shown, and the motion shall
be heard and determined by the judge who has dealt with the matter in chambers, unless this proves
impossible or inconvenient owing to such Judge’s death or retirement or prolonged absence from Lagos
State.
(3)
This rule shall apply to decisions given by a Judge in Chambers on appeal from the Chief Registrar under
Rule 4 of Order 41.
Order 51
Foreclosure and Redemption
1.
Any mortgagee or mortgagor, whether legal or equitable, or any person entitled to or having property subject to a
legal or equitable charge, or any person having the right to foreclose or redeem any mortgage, whether legal or
equitable, may take out an originating summons, for such relief of the nature or kind following as may by the
summons be specified, and as the circumstances of the case may require; that is
(a)
payment of moneys secured by the mortgage or charge;
(b)
sale;
(c)
foreclosure;
(d)
delivery of possession, whether before or after foreclosure, to the mortgagee or person entitled to the charge,
by the mortgagor or person having the property subject to the charge, or by any other person in, or alleged to
be in possession of the property.
(e)
redemption;
(f)
reconveyance;
(g)
delivery of possession by the mortgagee.
2.
Orders for payment and for possession shall be in Forms 35, 36 and 37 of these Rules with such variations as the
circumstances of the case may require, and like forms shall be used under corresponding circumstances in actions
for the like relief commenced by writ.
3.
The Judge may give and special directions concerning the execution of the judgment, or the service thereof upon
persons not parties to the cause or matter as he deems fit.
Order 52
I
Summons to proceed with Account and Inquiries after Judgment.
1.
Every judgment or order directing accounts or inquiries to be taken or made shall be brought to a Judge by the party
entitled to prosecute the same within 10 days after such judgment or order shall have been entered or filed, and in
default thereof any other party to the cause or matter shall be at liberty to bring in the same, and such party shall
have the prosecution of such judgment or order unless the judge shall otherwise direct.
2.
Upon a copy of the judgment or order being left, a summons shall be issued to proceed with the accounts or
inquiries directed, and upon the return of such summons the Judge, if satisfied by proper evidence that all necessary
parties have been served with notice of the judgment or order, shall thereupon give directions as to;
(i)
the manner in which each of the accounts and inquiries is to be prosecuted;
(ii)
the evidence to be adduced in support thereof;
(iii)
the parties who are to attend on the several accounts and inquiries; and
(iv)
the time within which each proceeding is to be taken and a day or days may be appointed for the further
attendance of the parties, and all such directions may afterwards be varied by addition thereto or otherwise,
as may be found necessary.
3.
Where by a judgment or order a deed is directed to be settled by Judge in case the parties differ, a summons to
proceed shall be issued, and upon the return of the summons the party entitled to prepare the draft deed shall be
directed to deliver a copy thereof, within such time as the Judge shall deem fit, to the party entitled to object thereto,
and the party so entitled to object shall be directed to deliver to the other party a statement in writing of his
objections within 8 days after the delivery of such copy, and the proceeding shall be adjourned until after the
expiration of the said period of 8 days.
4.
Where, upon the hearing of the summons to proceed, it appears to the Judge that by reason of absence, or for any
other sufficient cause, the service of notice of the judgment or order upon any party cannot be made, the Judge may
if he shall deem fit, order any substituted service or notice by advertisement or otherwise in lieu of such service.
5.
If on the hearing of the summons to proceed it shall appear that all necessary parties are not parties to the action or
have not been served with notice of the judgment or order, directions may be given for advertisement for creditors,
and for leaving the accounts in Chambers. Adjudication on creditors’ claims and the accounts are not to be
proceeded with, and no other proceeding is to be taken, except for the purpose of ascertaining notice of the parties to
be served, until all necessary parties shall have been served and until directions shall have been given as to the
parties who are to attend the proceedings.
6.
Copies, abstracts, extracts of or from accounts, deeds or other documents and pedigrees and concise statements
shall, if directed be supplied for the use of the Judge, and where so directed, copies shall be handed over to the other
parties:
Provided that no copies shall be made of deeds or documents where the originals can be brought in unless the Judge
shall otherwise direct.
II
Summons Book
7.
At the time any summons to proceed is obtained, an entry thereof shall be made in the Summons Book, stating the
date on which the summons issued, the name of the cause or matter and by what party, and shortly for what purpose
such summons is obtained, and at what time such summons is returnable.
Order 53
Summary proceedings for possession of landed Property occupied by squatters or without the owner’s consent.
1.
(1)
This Order shall not apply where a person in occupation of land is:
(a)
a tenant; or
(b)
a tenant holding over after termination of his tenancy; or
(c)
a licensee of the owner or person entitled to possession; or
(d)
a person who had the consent of the predecessor in title of the person who is entitled to Possession
(2)
Where a person claims possession of land which he alleges is occupied solely by a person listed in sub-rule 1
above, proceedings may be brought by originating summons in accordance with the provisions of this Order.
2.
The originating summons shall be in Form 38 and no acknowledgement of service shall be required.
3.
The claimant shall file in support of the originating summons an affidavit stating;
(a)
his interest in the land;
(b)
the circumstances in which the land has been occupied without licence or consent and in which his claim to
possession arises; and
(c)
that he does not know the name of any person occupying the land who is not named in the Summons.
4.
(1)
Where any person in occupation of the land is named in the originating summons, the summons together with
a copy of the affidavit in support shall be served on him;
(a)
personally or in accordance with Order 7 Rule 1 sub-rule 2; or
(b)
by leaving a copy of the summons and of the affidavit or sending them to him at the premises; or
(c)
in such other manner as the Judge may direct.
(2)
The summons shall, in addition to being served on the named defendants, if any, in accordance with sub-rule
1 of this rule be served, unless the Judge otherwise directs by;
(a)
affixing a copy of the summons and a copy of the affidavit to the main door or other conspicuous part
of the premises; and
(b)
if practicable, inserting through the letter box at the premises, a copy of the summons and a copy of
the affidavit enclosed in a sealed envelope addressed to "the occupiers".
(3)
Every copy of an originating summons for service under sub-rule 1 or 2 of the rule shall be sealed with the
seal of the Court out of which the summons was issued.
5.
Without prejudice to Rule 16 of Order 13, any person not named as a defendant who is in occupation of the land and
wishes to be heard on the question whether an order for possession should be made may apply at any stage of the
proceedings to be joined as a defendant.
6.
(1)
An order for possession in proceedings under this Order shall be in Form 39 with such variations as
circumstances may require.
(2)
The Judge may forthwith order a writ of possession to issue.
(3)
Nothing in this order shall prevent the Judge from ordering possession to be given on a specified date, in the
exercise of any power which could have been exercised if possession had been claimed in an action begun by
writ.
7.
(1)
No writ of possession to enforce an order for possession under this Order shall be issued after the expiration
of three (3) months from the date of the order without the leave of the Judge.
(2)
The application for leave may be made ex parte unless the judge otherwise directs.
8.
(1)
The Judge may, on such terms as he deems fit, set aside or vary any order made in proceedings under this
Order.
(2)
In this Order "landed property" means land with or without building thereon.
Order 54
Stay of Execution or Proceeding pending Appeal
1.
Where any application is made to the Judge for stay of execution or of proceedings under any judgment or decision
appealed from, such application shall be made by notice of motion supported by affidavit setting forth the grounds
upon which a stay of execution or proceedings is sought.
2.
An applicant for stay of execution of a judgment shall compile the records of appeal within 90 days from the date of
filing a notice of appeal and where the record is not so compiled, the respondent may apply to strike out the
application or discharge the order if already granted.
3.
(1)
Application for stay of execution shall be regarded as an urgent matter.
(2)
Where a Judge has struck out an application for stay, no further application for stay of execution shall be
made in the same matter.
4.
Where any application is made to the Judge under this order, a formal order shall be drawn up embodying the terms
of the decision of the judge and bearing the date upon which the order is made.
Order 55
Proceedings in Revenue Matters
1.
This Order shall apply to the practice and procedure in all cases and proceedings relating to the revenue of the State
Government in which the Government or any of its departments, agencies or parastatals is suing or is being sued.
2.
The Chief Judge shall designate such number of Courts as may be sufficient as 'Revenue Courts' in each Division of
the High Court of Lagos State for the purpose of hearing all cases brought under this Order.
3.
(1)
An action under this Order shall be commenced by filing a Petition which shall be in Form 40 with such
modifications and variations as the circumstances may require, setting out the name and description of the
Petitioner( s) and the Respondent(s).
(2)
The Petition shall be accompanied by an Affidavit verifying the facts deposed to by the Petitioner(s), together
with the Exhibits and a Written Address.
4.
(1)
A Petition under this Order shall refer to the enactment under which the payment, account, information or the
production of books is claimed or required;
(2)
Where information is required, the Petitioner shall show sufficient particulars of the information required.
5.
(1)
Where the Respondent is a tax payer and does not dispute the reliefs in the Petition, he shall, within fourteen
(14) days of the service of the Petition on him, pay into Court, the amount alleged to be due from him as
revenue to the Government.
(2)
Upon payment into Court as stated in sub-rule (1) of this Rule, the proceedings against the Respondent shall
be discontinued.
6.
(1)
Where the Respondent disputes the reliefs in the Petition, he shall file his Answer within twenty -one (21)
days of the service of the Petition on him.
(2)
The Answer referred to in sub-rule (1) of this Rule shall be by way of an Affidavit deposed to by the
Respondent, setting out the facts relied upon in opposition to the Petition and accompanied by Exhibits and a
Written Address.
7.
Upon being served with the Answer, the Petitioner may, within seven (7) days of such service on him, file a Further
Affidavit together with his Written Reply and same shall be served on the Respondent not later than five (5) days of
filing.
8.
(1)
A Petition shall be heard within seven (7) days after the expiration of the time limited for filing and service of
the Reply under this Order.
(2)
Where there is conflict in the Affidavits of the parties, the Court may either decide the matter upon the
Affidavits or may direct that the matter be decided by oral evidence in Court.
9.
The Court hearing a Petition under this Order may give directions for -
(a)
service of further particulars;
(b)
discovery of documents; and
(c)
service of interrogatories and answer thereto.
10.
The hearing of a Petition shall as far as practicable be held from day to day.
11.
Where the Respondent fails to file his Answer within the time provided for doing so in this Order, the Petitioner
shall apply that Judgment be entered against the Respondent on such terms as the Court may deem fit in the
circumstances.
12.
When a Petition is called for hearing and the parties have been duly served with the Notice of Hearing, if any party
or his Legal Practitioner does not appear, the Court shall proceed as it deems fit.
13.
Nothing in this Order shall preclude any person from proceeding under any provision of these Rules or any law as
may be appropriate.
14.
In this Order, unless the context otherwise requires:
"Government" means the Government of Lagos State or of a Local Government Councilor any person who exercises
power on its behalf
"Revenue" means any sum due or alleged due to the Government in form of levy, charge, tax, rate or dues under any
law in force.
Order 56
Fast Track Procedure
1.
The main objective of the Fast Track Court is to reduce the time spent on litigation to a period not exceeding nine
(9) months from the commencement of the action till final Judgment.
2.
(1)
A suit shall qualify for the fast track where:
(a)
the action is commenced by Writ of Summons; and
(b)
an application is made to the Registrar by a Claimant or Counter- Claimant; and
(2)
(a)
the claim is for liquidated monetary claims or counter-claim in a sum not less than One Hundred
Million Naira (N100,000,000.00); or
(b)
the claim involves a mortgage transaction, charge or other securities; or
(c)
the Claimant is suing for a liquidated monetary claim and is not a Nigerian national or resident in
Nigeria and such facts are disclosed in the pleadings.
3.
Where a case satisfies any of the criteria in Rule 2 above, the Deputy Chief Registrar or any other person in charge
of the Litigation Section shall cause the Originating Process to be marked "Qualified For Fast Track" and direct the
Applicant to pay appropriate filing fees.
4.
The Originating Process under this Order shall be served within fourteen (14) days of filing.
5.
(1)
Upon service of the Originating Process the Defendant shall file his Statement of Defence and other
frontloaded processes within forty- two (42) days.
(2)
The Claimant shall be entitled to file a Reply within seven (7) days of service of the Statement of Defence.
6.
(1)
The Claimant shall apply for the Case Management Conference Notice as in Forms 17 and 18 within seven
(7) days of the close of pleadings.
(2)
If the Claimant does not apply in accordance with sub-rule 1 of this Rule, the Defendant may do so or apply
for on Order to dismiss the action.
7.
(1)
The Case Management Conference or series of Case Management Conferences shall be held from day to day
and adjourned only f the purpose of compliance with Cases Management Conference Orders:
Provided that the Case Management Conference or series of Case Management Conferences shall be
completed within a period of 30 days.
(2)
Where the Judge determines that an extension is necessary or an application is made by either party, he may
allow the Case Management Conference to continue for a further period of fourteen (14) days or such other
period as he may deem fit.
8.
(1)
Upon completion of the Case Management Conference and the issuance of the Case Management Report, the
case file shall be forwarded to the Honourable Chief Judge or other designated Judge for assignment to a
Trial Judge.
(2)
At the first appearance of the parties before the Trial Judge, theCourt shall give directions for trial including a
trial time table which it considers appropriate.
9.
(1)
Where there has been a change in circumstances since trial direction were issued, the Court may set aside or
vary any of the direction based on an application or suo motu.
(2)
Where the parties agree about changes to be made to the trial directions given, they must immediately apply
for an Order by consent, including an agreed statement of the reasons why the variation is sought.
(3)
Where the Court varies any direction because of a defaulting Party or his Legal Practitioner, it may impose
costs and daily default fees as prescribed in the Rules.
(4)
The Court may make an Order of variation without a hearing.
10.
(1)
Where a party has failed to comply with a Court's direction, any other party may apply for an Order to
enforce compliance or for a sanction to be imposed or both.
(2)
Failure to comply with directions will not lead to the adjournment of the trial unless the circumstances of the
failure are exceptional.
11.
Where a party needs to make any application which is not included in the trial time table, he must do so as soon as
possible to minimize the need to change the time table.
12.
Unless the trial Court otherwise directs, the trial will be conducted from today day to day and in accordance with
any Order previously made.
13.
(1)
The Court will regard the adjournment of a trial as an order of last resort.
(2)
Where the Court has no option but to adjourn a trial, it will do so for the shortest possible time.
14.
The entire trial period, including the final addresses of counsel, shall not be later than ninety (90) days from the date
the trial directions are made. Provided that:-
(1)
when the party beginning has concluded his evidence, the Judge shall ask the other party if he intends to call
evidence;
(2)
if the other party does not intend to call evidence, the party beginning shall within fourteen (14) days after
close of evidence file a Written Address;
(3)
upon being served with the Written Address, the other party shall within fourteen (14) days file his own
Written Address;
(4)
where the other party calls evidence he shall within 14 days after the close of evidence file a Written
Address;
(5)
upon being served with the other party's Written Address the party beginning shall within fourteen (14) days
file his own Written Address;
(6)
the party who files the first Address shall have a right of Reply on point of law only. The Reply shall be filed
within seven (7) days after service of the other party's address.
15.
In all Fast Track cases, the Judge shall endeavor to deliver Judgment within sixty (60) days of the completion of
trial.
Order 58
Probate and Administration.
I
Grant of Probate or Administration in General
1.
(1)
Subject to the provision of Rule 44 and 45 of this Order when any person subject to the jurisdiction of the
Court dies, all petitions for the granting of any Letters of Administration of the estate of the deceased person,
with or without a Will attached, and all applications on other matters connected therewith shall be made to
the Probate Registrar of the Court.
(2)
No grant of administration with the Will annexed shall issue within fourteen (14) days of the death the
deceased; and no grant of administration without the Will annexed, shall issue within Twenty (21) days of
such death.
2.
(1)
The Judge shall, when the circumstances of the case appear so to require, forthwith on the death of a person,
or as son after as may be, appointed and authorize an officer of the Court, or some other fit person, to take
possession of his property within its jurisdiction or put it under seal and so keep it until it can be dealt with
according to law.
(2)
The judge may refuse to entertain any application under Rule 2 (1) of this order if he considers that there has
been unreasonable delay by the Applicant in making the application
3.
(1)
An applicant for a grant may apply in person
(2)
A personal Applicant may not apply through an agent, whether paid or unpaid and may not be represented by
any person acting or appearing to act as his adviser.
(3)
No personal application shall be received or proceeded with if
(a)
it becomes necessary to bring the matter before the court by motion or by action
(b)
an application has already been made by a legal Practitioner on behalf of the Applicant and has not
been withdrawn;
(c)
the judge otherwise directs
(4)
After a will has been deposited in the Registry by a personal Applicant, it may not thereafter be delivered to
the Applicant or to any other person unless, in special circumstances, the Judge so directs
(5)
A personal Applicant shall produce a Certificate of the death of the deceased or such other evidence as the
Judge may approve
(6)
A personal Applicant shall supply all information necessary to enable the papers leading to the grant to be
prepared in the Registry or may himself prepare such papers and lodge them unsworn.
(7)
Unless the Judge otherwise directs, every oath, affidavit or guarantee required of a personal application shall
be sworn or executed by all the deponents or sureties before an authorized Officer.
4.
Every Legal practitioner through whom an application for a grant is made shall give his telephone number, e-mail
address and address of his place of business within jurisdiction of the court
5.
(1)
The Judge shall not allow any grant to be issued until all enquires which he may deem fit to make have been
answered to his satisfaction
(2)
The Judge may require proof of identity of the deceased or of the Applicant for the grant beyond those
contained in the oath
6.
(1)
Every application for a grant shall be supported by an oath in the form applicable to the circumstances of the
case, which shall be contained in an Affidavit sworn by the Applicant and by such other documents as the
Judge may require.
(2)
Unless otherwise directed by the Judge, the Oath shall state where the deceased was domiciled at the time of
death
7.
Where it is necessary to describe the deceased in a grant by some name in addition to his true name, the Applicant
shall state in the oath the true name of the deceased and shall depose that some part of the estate, specifying it, was
held in the other name,; or as to any other reason that there may before the inclusion of the manner in the grant
8.
The Judge shall require evidence, in addition to that offered by the applicant, where additional evidence in that
behalf seems to the Judge necessary or desirable, in regard to
(a)
the identy of the deceased or of the Applicant
(b)
the relationship of the Applicant to the deceased
(c)
any person or persons in existence with a right equal or prior to that of the Applicant to the grant of probate
or administration sought by the Applicant
(d)
any other matter which may be considered by the Judge relevant to the question whether the Applicant is the
proper person to whom the grant should be made
Provided that the Judge may refuse the grant unless the applicant produces the required evidence on these point or
any of them as required by the Judge.
9.
Where it appears to the Judge that some person or persons other than the applicant may have at least an equal right
with the applicant to the grant sought, the Judge may refuse the grant until due notice of the application has been
given to such other person or persons and an opportunity given for such person or persons to be heard in respect of
the application.
10.
(1)
Where the deceased was domiciled outside the State, the Judge may order that a grant should be issued
(a)
to the person entrusted with the administration of the estate by the court having jurisdiction at the
place where the deceased died domiciled
(b)
to the person entitled to administer the estate by the law of the place where the deceased died
domiciled
(c)
if there is no such person as is mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Rule or if in the opinion of the
Judge the circumstances so require, to such person as the Judge may direct
(d)
If a grant required any sum of money payable to an estate from a Provident Fund established under the
provisions of any applicable law.
(2)
Where no Order has been made as stated in Rule 10 (1) above
(a)
Probate of any will which is admissible to proof may be granted
(i)
where the Will is in English or in an indigenous language to the Executor named therein;
(ii)
where the Will described the duties of a named person in terms sufficient to constitute him
Executor according to the tenor of the Will, to that person
(b)
where the whole of the estate in the State consists of immovable propertry, a grant limited thereto may
be made in accordance with the law that would have been applicable if the deceased had died
domiciled in the State.
11.
(1)
Where a person entitled to a grant resides outside the State, grant may be made to his lawful attorney for his
use and benefit until such person shall obtain a grant or in such other way as the Judge may direct:
Provided that where the person so entitled is an Executor administration shall not be granted to his Attorney
without notice to the other Executors, if any.
(2)
Where the Judge is satisfied by Affidavit that it is desirable for a grant to be made to the lawful Attorney of a
person entitled to a grant and resident in the State, he may direct the grant to be made to the Attorney for the
use and benefit of such person, until he obtains a grant or in such other way as the Judge may direct.
12.
(1)
Where the person to whom a grant would otherwise be made is a minor, a grant for his use and benefit until
he attains the age of eighteen (18) years shall subject to sub-rules (3) and (5) of this Rule, be granted:
(a)
to both parents of the minor jointly or to any Guardian appointed by a Judge; or
(b)
where there is no such Guardian able and willing to act and the minor has attained the age of sixteen
(16) years, to kin nominated by the minor, or where the minor is a married woman, to any such next of
kin or to her spouse if nominated by her.
(2)
Any person nominated under sub-rule 1 (b) of this Rule may represent any other minor whose next of kin he
is, being a minor below the age of sixteen (16) years entitled in the same degree as the minor who made the
nomination.
(3)
Notwithstanding anything in this Rule, administration for the use and benefit of the minor until he attains the
age of eighteen (18) years may be granted to any person assigned as is mentioned in sub-rule (1) of this Rule;
and such an Order may be made on application by the intended Guardian, who shall file an affidavit in
support of the application and, if required by the Court, an affidavit of fitness sworn by a responsible person,
(4)
Where a grant is required to be made to not less than two persons and there is only one person competent and
willing to take a grant under the foregoing provisions of this Rule, a grant may, unless the Judge otherwise
directs, be made to such person jointly with any other person nominated by him as a fit and proper person to
take the grant.
(5)
Where a minor who is sole Executor has no interest in the residuary estate of the deceased, administration
with the Will attached for the use and benefit of the minor until he attains the age of eighteen (18) years shall,
unless the Judge otherwise directs, be granted to the person entitled to the residuary estate.
(6)
A minor' s right to administration may be renounced only by a person assigned as a Guardian under sub-rule
(3) of this Rule and authorized to renounce by the Judge.
13.
(1)
Where one of several Executors is a minor, Probate may be granted to the adult Executors, with power
reserved for making the like grant to the minor on his attaining the age of eighteen (18) years and
administration for the use and benefit of the minor until he attains the age of eighteen (18) years may be
granted under Rule 12 only if the adult Executors renounce or, on being cited to accept or refuse a grant, fail
to make an effective application.
(2)
A minor Executor's right to probate on attaining the age of eighteen (18) years shall not be renounced by any
person on his behalf.
14.
(1)
Where the Judge is satisfied that a person entitled to a grant is by reason of mental or physical infirmity
incapable of managing his affairs, a grant for his use and benefit, during his incapacity may be made:
(a)
in the case of mental incapacity, to the person authorized by the Judge to apply for the grant;
(b)
where there is no person so authorized or in the case of physical incapacity:
(i)
if the person incapable is entitled as Executor and has no interest in the residuary estate of the
deceased, to the person entitled to such residuary estate;
(ii)
where the person incapable is entitled otherwise than as Executor or is an Executor having an
interest in the residuary estate of the deceased, to the person who would be entitled to a grant in
respect of his estate if he had died intestate or to such other person as the Judge may by Order
direct.
(2)
Unless the Judge otherwise directs, no grant shall be made under this Rule unless all persons entitled in the
same degree as the person incapable have been considered and excluded.
(3)
Where legal disability arises out of unsoundness of mind or insanity, notice of intended application for a
grant under this Rule shall, unless the Judge otherwise directs, be given to his Guardian.
(4)
Where there is physical disability, notice of intended application for a grant under this Rule shall, unless the
Judge otherwise directs, be given to the person alleged to be incapable.
15.
Where the State is or may be beneficially interested in the estate of a deceased person, notice of intended application
for a grant shall be given by the Applicant to the Lagos State Attorney-General and the Judge may direct that no
grant shall issue within a specified time after the notice has been given.
16.
(1)
Every person to whom a grant of Probate or Letters of Administration shall have been made and every
Administrator appointed by the Judge shall, file in Court the accounts of his administration every twelve (12)
months from the date of the grant or the appointment until the completion of the administration.
(2)
Any Executor or Administrator who fails to file his accounts within the prescribed period as aforesaid shall
be liable to a penalty of two hundred naira (N200.00) for every day of default. A fine for non-payment shall
be enforceable by distress, and failing sufficient distress, by imprisonment for a term not exceeding six (6)
months.
(3)
When an account is filed in Court under this Rule, the Judge shall scrutinize such account and if it appears to
the Judge that by reason of improper, unvouched or unjustifiable entries or otherwise such account is not a
full and proper account, the Judge shall require the person filing the account to remedy such defect within
such time as the Judge may deem reasonable for the purpose; and on failure to remedy such defect within
such time, the person who filed such defective account shall be deemed to have failed to file an account
within the meaning of this Ru1e and proceedings may be taken against such person accordingly.
(4)
The Registrar shall bring to the notice of the Judge the fact that any Executor or Administrator has failed to
file his accounts as required by this Rule.
(5)
The Judge may, on the motion of any party interested, or suo motu, summon any Executor or Administrator
failing as aforesaid, to show cause why he should not be punished.
(6)
The Judge may for good cause shown, extend the time for such filing of accounts.
(7)
Any Executor or Administrator who shall have been granted an extension of time to file such accounts, and
who fails within such extended time to do so shall be liable to the penalty set out in sub- rule (2) above, and
the procedure for bringing him before the Court shall be as set out in sub-rule (5) above.
(8)
The accounts shall be opened to the inspection of any person who satisfies the Registrar that he is interested
in the administration.
(9)
In this Rule, the word "accounts" shall mean and include an inventory, an account of the administration, the
vouchers in the hands of the Executor or Administrator relating thereto and an affidavit in verification.
17.
If any person other than the named Executor or Administrator, or an officer of the Court, or person authorized by the
Judge, takes possession of and administers or otherwise deals with the property of the deceased person, he shall,
besides the other liabilities he may incur, be liable to a fine of not less than fifty thousand naira (N50,000.00) as the
Judge, having regard to the condition of the person so interfering and the other circumstances of the case, may deem
fit to impose.
18.
Where evidence of foreign law is required on any application for a grant, the Judge may accept an affidavit from any
person who, having regard to the particulars of his knowledge or experience given in the affidavit, he regards as
suitably qualified to give expert evidence of the law in question.
19.
If a Judge is satisfied that a grant should be amended or revoked he may make an Order accordingly: Provided that
except in special circumstances no grant shall be amended or revoked under this Rule except on the application or
with the consent of the person to whom the grant was made.
20.
All caveats, citations, warnings and appearances shall contain a telephone number, e-mail address and an address for
service within jurisdiction.
Order 58
Grant of Probate or Letters of Administration with Will
1.
Any person may deposit his Will for safe custody in the Probate Registry, sealed under his own seal and the seal of
the Court.
2.
Every original Will, of which probate or administration with Will annexed is granted, shall be filed and kept in the
Probate Registry in such manner as to secure at once its due preservation and convenient inspection. A copy of
every such Will and of the Probate or Administration shall be preserved in the Registry.
3.
No original Will shall be given out for any purpose without the direction in writing of a Judge. A certified transcript
under the seal of the Court of the Probate or Administration with the Will annexed may be obtained from the Court.
4.
(1)
On receiving an application for administration with Will annexed, a Judge shall inspect the Will, and see
whether it appears to be signed by the testator or by some other person in his presence, and by his direction,
and subscribed by two witnesses according to the applicable law, and shall not proceed further if the Will
does not appear to be so signed and subscribed.
(2)
If the Will appears to be so signed and subscribed, the Judge shall refer to the attestation clause and consider
whether the wording thereof states the Will to have been in fact executed in accordance with those
enactments.
5.
(1)
Where a Will contains no attestation clause or the attestation clause is insufficient or where it appears to the
Judge that there is some doubt about the due execution of the Will, he shall before admitting it to proof,
require an Affidavit as to due execution from one or more of the attesting witnesses or, if no attesting witness
is conveniently available, from any other person who was present at the time the Will was executed.
(2)
If no Affidavit can be obtained in accordance with the foregoing paragraph, the Judge may, if he deems fit
having regard to the desirability of protecting the interest of any person who may be prejudiced by the Will,
accept evidence on affidavit from any person he may deem fit to show that the signature on the Will is the
handwriting of the deceased, or of any other matter which may raise a presumption in favour of the due
execution of the Will.
(3)
If the Judge, after considering the evidence is satisfied that the Will was not duly executed, he shall refuse
Probate and mark the Will accordingly.
6.
Where both subscribing witnesses are dead or if from other circumstances such an affidavit cannot be obtained from
either of them, resort shall be had to an affidavit sworn to by other persons present at the execution of the Will; but
if no such affidavit can be obtained, proof shall be required of that fact, and of the handwriting of the deceased and
of the subscribing witnesses, and also of any circumstances raising a presumption in favour of the due execution of
the Will.
7.
(1)
Where in a Will, there is any obliteration, interlineations or other alteration which is not authenticated in the
manner prescribed by law or by the re-execution of the Will or by the execution of a Codicil, the Judge shall
require evidence to show whether the alteration was present at the time the Will was executed and shall give
directions as to the form in which the Will is to be proved:
Provided that this sub-rule shall not apply to any alteration which appears to the Judge to be of no practical
importance.
(2)
Where there is doubt as to the date on which a Will was executed, the Judge may require such evidence as he
deems necessary to establish the date.
8.
Any appearance of attempted revocation of a Will by burning, tearing or otherwise and every other circumstance
leading to a presumption of revocation by the Testator, shall be accounted for to the Judge.
9.
The Judge may require an affidavit from any person he may deem fit for the purpose of satisfying himself as to any
of the matters referred to in Rules 5, 7 and 8. In any such affidavit sworn by an attesting witness or other person
present at the time of the execution of a Will, the deponent shall depose to the manner in which the Will was
executed.
10.
Where the Testator was blind or illiterate, the Judge shall not grant' administration with the Will annexed, unless the
Judge is first satisfied, by proof or by what appears on the face of the Will, that the Will was read over to the
deceased before its execution or that he had at that time knowledge of its contents.
11.
(l)
The Judge, on being satisfied that the Will was duly executed, shall inspect it to see whether there are any
interlineations, alterations, erasures or obliterations appearing in it and requiring to be accounted for.
(2)
Interlineations, alterations, erasures and obliterations are invalid unless:
(a)
they existed in the Will at the time of its execution; or
(b)
if made afterwards, they have been executed and attested in the mode required by the applicable law;
or
(c)
they have been made valid by the re-execution of the Will or by the subsequent execution of some
Codicil thereto.
(3)
Where interlineations, alterations, erasures or obliterations appear in the Will, unless duly executed or recited
in or otherwise identified by the attestation clause, an affidavit in proof of their having existed in the Will
before its execution shall be filed.
(4)
Where no satisfactory evidence is adduced respecting the time when an erasure or obliteration was made and
the words erased or obliterated are not entirely effaced, and can, on inspection of the Will, be ascertained,
they shall form part of the Probate. Where any words have been erased which might have been of
importance, an affidavit shall be required.
12.
(1)
Where a Will contains a reference to any document of such a nature as to raise the question whether it ought
or ought not to form a constituent part of the Will, the Judge shall require the production of the document,
with a view to ascertaining whether or not it is entitled to Probate; and if it is not produced, a satisfactory
account for its non production shall be given. A document cannot form part of a Will unless it was in
existence at the time when the Will was executed.
(2)
Where there are vestiges of sealing wax or wafers, or other marks on a Will, leading to the inference that
some document has been at some time annexed or attached thereto, a satisfactory account of them shall be
required, and if it is not produced, a satisfactory account for its non production shall be given.
13.
Where a person appointed in a Will survives the Testator but either dies without having taken Probate or, having
been called on by the Court to take Probate, does not appear, his right in respect of the executorship wholly ceases.
No further renunciation by that Executor shall be necessary and the administration of the estate of the Testator shall
go on as if that person had not been appointed Executor.
14.
Every Will in respect of which an application for a grant is made shall be marked by the signatures of the Applicant
and the person before whom the oath is sworn, and shall be exhibited to any affidavit which may be required under
this Order as to the validity, terms, condition or date of execution of the Will: Provided that where the Judge is
satisfied that compliance with this Rule might result in the loss of the Will, he may allow a photocopy to be marked
or exhibited in lieu of the original document.
15.
Any person having in his possession or under his control any paper or writing of any deceased person, being or
purporting to be testamentary, shall forthwith deliver the original to the Probate Registrar of the Court. If any person
fails to do so within 3 months after having had know ledge of the death of the deceased, he may be liable to a fine of
Fifty Thousand Naira(N50,000.00) as the Judge having regard to the condition of such person in default and other
circumstances of the case may deem fit to impose.
16.
Where it appears that any paper of the deceased, being or purporting to be testamentary is in the possession or under
the control of any person, a Judge may upon an ex parte application, whether a suit or proceeding in respect of
Probate or Administration is pending or not, order him to produce the paper and bring it into Court.
17.
Where it appears that there are reasonable grounds for believing that any person had knowledge of any paper being
or purporting to be testamentary, although it is not shown that the paper is in his possession or under his control, a
Judge may upon an ex-parte application, whether a suit or proceedings in respect of Probate or Administration is
pending or not, order that he be examined in respect of the same in Court, or on interrogatories, and that he attend
for that purpose, and after examination, if satisfied, order him to produce the paper and bring it into Court.
18.
The Judge may on the application of any person claiming an interest under a Will, give notice to the Executors
therein named, to come in and prove the Will, or to renounce Probate, and they, or some or one of them, shall within
twenty one (21) days after notice, come in and prove or renounce accordingly.
19.
If any named Executor in the Will of the deceased takes possession and administers or otherwise deals with any part
of the property of the deceased, and does not apply for Probate within three (3) months after the death, or after the
termination of any suit for or dispute in respect of Probate or administration, he may, independent of any other
liability be deemed to be in contempt of Court, and shall be liable to such fme of not less than Fifty Thousand Naira,
(N50, 000.00) as the Judge deems fit to impose.
20.
(1)
Where the Judge considers that in any particular case a photocopy of the original Will would not be
satisfactory for purposes of record, he may require that an engrossment suitable for photo reproduction be
lodged.
(2)
Where a Will contains traces of alterations which are not admissible to proof, there shall be lodged an
engrossment of the Will in the form in which it is to be proved.
(3)
Any engrossment lodged under this Rule shall reproduce the punctuation, spacing and division into
paragraphs of the Will and, if it is one to which sub-rule (2) of the Rule applies, it shall be made bookwise on
durable paper following continuously from page to page.
(4)
Where any pencil writing appears on a Will, there shall be lodged a copy of the Will or of the pages or sheets
containing the pencil writing in which there shall be underlined in red ink those portions which appear in
pencil in the original.
21.
Where a gift to any person fails by reason of the fact that he is an attesting witness or the spouse of an attesting
witness, such person shall not have any right to a grant as a beneficiary named in the Will, without prejudice to his
right to a grant in any other capacity.
22.
(1)
Where all the persons entitled to the estate of the deceased under a Will have assigned their whole interest in
the estate to one or more persons, the assignee or assignees shall replace, in order of priority for a grant of
Probate, the assignor or, if there are two or more assignors, the assignor with the highest priority, in the
absence of a proving Executor.
(2)
Where there are two or more assignees, Probate may be granted with the consent of the others to anyone or
more but not exceeding four of them.
(3)
In any case where Probate is applied for by an assignee, a copy of the instrument of assignment shall be
lodged in the Registry.
23.
Where the deceased died after the commencement of this Order, the person or persons entitled to a grant of Probate
or Administration with the Will annexed shall be determined in accordance" with the following order of priority:-
(a)
the Executor;
(b)
any residuary legatee or devisee holding in trust for any other person;
(c)
any residuary legatee or devisee for life;
(d)
the ultimate residuary legatee or devisee, including one entitled on the happening of any contingency or
where the residue is not wholly disposed of by the Will, any person entitled to share in the residue not so
disposed of, or the personal representative of any such person:
Provided that:
(a)
unless the Judge otherwise directs, a residuary legatee or devisee whose legacy or devise is vested in interest
shall be preferred to one entitled on the happening of a contingency, and
(b)
where the residue is not in terms wholly disposed of, the Judge may, if he is satisfied that the Testator has
nevertheless disposed of the whole or substantially the whole of the estate as ascertained at the time of the
application for the grant, allow a grant to be made subject to Order 57 Rule 15 of these Rules to any legatee
or devisee entitled to, or to a share in the estate so disposed of, without regard to the persons entitled to share
in any residue not disposed of by the Will;
(c)
any specific legatee or devisee or any creditor or, subject to Order 59 Rule 14 sub-rule (3), the personal
representative of any such person or where the estate is not wholly disposed of by Will, any person who,
notwithstanding that the amount of the estate is such that he has no immediate beneficial interest therein, may
have a beneficial interest in the event of an accretion to it;
(d)
any specific legatee or devisee entitled on the happening of any contingency, or any person having no interest
under the Will who would have been entitled to a grant if the deceased had died wholly intestate.
24.
When the beneficial interest in the whole estate of the deceased is vested absolutely in a person who has renounced
his right to a grant of administration with the Will attached and has consented to such administration being granted
to the person or persons who would be entitled to his own estate ifhe himself had died intestate, administration may
be granted to such person or one or more but not exceeding four of such persons:
Provided that a surviving spouse shall not be regarded as person in whom the estate has vested absolutely unless he
would be entitled to the whole of the estate, whatever its value may be.
25.
(1)
Renunciation of probate by an Executor shall not operate as renunciation of any right which he may have to a
grant of administration in some other capacity unless he expressly renounces such right.
(2)
Unless the Judge otherwise directs, no person who has renounced a grant in one capacity may obtain a grant
in some other capacity.
(3)
A renunciation of Probate or Administration may be retracted at any time on the Order of the Judge:
Provided that only in exceptional circumstances may leave be given to an Executor to retract a renunciation of
Probate after a grant has been made to such other person entitled in a lower degree.
26.
(1)
An application for the resealing of Probate or Administration with Will attached granted by a Court outside
the State shall be made by the person to whom the grant was made or by any person authorized in writing to
apply on his behalf.
(2)
On any such application:
(a)
a Tax Clearance Certificate shall be lodged as if the application were one for a grant in the State;
(b)
the application shall be advertised in such manner as the Judge may direct and shall be supported by
an oath sworn by the person making the application.
(3)
On an application for the resealing of such a grant:
(a)
the Judge shall not require sureties except where it appears to him that the grant is made to a person or
for a purpose mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (f) of Order 59 Rule 4 sub-rule (1) or except where he
considers that there are special circumstances making it desirable to require sureties;
(b)
Order 59 Rules 4 sub-rules (2), (4), (5), (6) and Order 57 Rule 3 sub-rule (4) shall apply with any
necessary modifications; and
(c)
a guarantee entered into by a surety shall be in Probate Form 2 with such variations as circumstances
may require.
(4)
Except by leave of the Judge, no grant shall be resealed unless it was made to such a person as is mentioned
in paragraph (a) or (b) of Order 57 Rule 10 sub-rule (1) or to a person to whom a grant could be made under
Order 57 Rule 10 sub-rule (2).
(5)
No limited or temporary grant shall be resealed except by leave of the Judge.
(6)
Every grant lodged for resealing shall include a copy of any Will to which the grant relates or shall be
accompanied by a copy certified as correct by or under the authority of the Court by which the grant was
made.
(7)
The Registrar shall send notice of the resealing to the Court which made the grant.
(8)
Where notice is received in the Registry from outside the State of the resealing of a grant made in the State,
notice of any amendment or revocation of the grant shall be sent to the Court by which it was resealed.
27.
(1)
Notices in the nature of citation shall be given in such manner as the Judge directs.
(2)
Every citation shall be settled by the Registrar before being issued.
(3)
Every averment in a citation and such other information as the Registrar may require shall be verified by an
affidavit sworn to by the person issuing the citation, in this Order called "the Citor", or, if there are two or
more Citors, by one of them:
Provided that the Registrar may in special circumstances accept an affidavit sworn to by the Citor's Legal
Practitioner.
(4)
The Citor shall enter a caveat before issuing a citation.
(5)
Every citation shall be served personally on the person cited unless a Judge, on cause shown by affidavit,
directs some other mode of service which may include notice by advertisement.
(6)
Every Will referred to in a citation shall be lodged in the Registry before the citation is issued, except where
the Will is not in the Citor's possession and the Judge is satisfied that it is impracticable to require it to be
lodged.
(7)
A person who has been cited to appear may, within eight (8) days of service of the citation upon him
inclusive of the day of such service, or at any time thereafter if no application has been made by the Citor
under sub-rule 5 of Rule 28 or sub-rule (2) of Rule 29 of this Order enter an appearance in the Registry by
filing Probate Form 6 and making an entry in the appropriate book, and shall thereafter serve on the Citor a
copy of Form 5 sealed with the seal of the Registry.
28.
(1)
A citation to accept or refuse a grant may be issued at the instance of any person who would himself be
entitled to a grant in the event of the person cited renouncing his right thereto.
(2)
Where power to make a grant to an Executor has been reserved, a citation calling on him to accept or refuse a
grant may be issued at the instance of the Executors who have proved the Will or the Executors of the last
survivor of the deceased.
(3)
A citation calling on an Executor who has intermeddled in the estate of the deceased to show cause why he
should not be ordered to take a grant may be issued at the instance of any person interested in the estate at
any time after the expiration of six (6) months from the death of the deceased:
Provided that no citation to take a grant shall issue while proceedings as to the validity of the Will are
pending.
(4)
A person cited who is willing to accept or take a grant may apply ex parte to the Judge for an Order for a
grant on filing an affidavit showing that he has entered an appearance and that he has I been served by the
Citor with notice of any application for a gr. to himself.
(5)
If the time limited for appearance has expired and the person cit has not entered an appearance, the Citor
may:
(a)
in the case of a citation under sub-rule (1) of this Rule apply tothe Judge for an Order for a grant to
himself;
(b)
in the case of a citation under sub-rule (2) of this Rule, apply to the Judge for an order that a note be
made on the grant that the Executor in respect of whom power was reserved has been duly cited and
has not appeared and that all his rights or interest in respect thereof have ceased;
(c)
in the case of a citation under sub-rule (3) of this Rule, apply to the Judge by Summons, which shall
be served on the person cited, for an Order requiring such person to take a grant within a specified
time or for a grant to himself or some other person specified in the Summons.
(6)
An application under sub-rule (5) of this Rule shall be supported by an affidavit showing that the citation was
duly served and that the person cited has not entered an appearance.
(7)
If the person cited has entered an appearance but has not applied for a grant under sub-rule (4) of this Rule, or
has failed to prosecute his application with reasonable diligence, the Citor may:
(a)
in the case of a citation under sub-rule (1) of this Rule, apply by Summons to the Judge for an Order
for a grant to himself
(b)
in the case of a citation under sub-rule (2) of this Rule, apply by Summons to the Judge for an Order
striking out the appearance and for the endorsement on the grant of such a note as is mentioned in
paragraph (b) of sub-rule (5) of this Rule
(c)
in the case of a citation under sub-rule (3) of this Rule, apply by Summons to the Judge for an Order
requiring the person cited to take a grant within a specified time or for a grant to himself or some other
person specified in the Summons; and the Summons shall be served on the person cited in each case.
29.
(1)
A citation to propound a Will shall be directed to the Executors named in the Will and to all persons
interested thereunder, and may be issued at the instance of any Citor having any interest contrary to that of
the Executors or such other persons.
(2)
Where the time limited for appearance has expired, the Citor may:
(a)
where no person cited has entered an appearance, apply to the Judge for an Order for a grant as if the
Will were invalid and such application shall be supported by an affidavit showing that the citation was
duly served;
(b)
in the case where no person who has entered an appearance proceeds with reasonable diligence to
propound the Will, apply to a Judge by Summons, which shall be served on every person cited who
has entered an appearance for such an Order as is mentioned in paragraph (a) above.
Order 59
Granting Letters of Administration without Will
1.
A Judge in granting Letters of Administration shall ascertain the time and place of the deceased's death and the
value of the property to be covered by the Administration.
2.
Every Applicant for a grant of Letters of Administration shall file in the Court a true declaration of all the personal
property of the deceased and the value thereof:
Provided that for the purpose of the fees payable on Letters of Administration, the value of the property in respect of
which the grant is made shall be deemed not to include:
(a)
any gratuity payable by the Government of the Federation of Nigeria, or of a State, to the estate of any person
formerly employed by either of such Governments or by a Statutory Corporation;
(b)
any sum of money payable to an estate from a Provident and/or Pension Fund established under the
provisions of any applicable law.
3.
(1)
The person to whom Administration is granted shall give a bond with two or more responsible sureties to the
satisfaction of the Judge. The bond shall affirm that the Administrator shall duly collect, get in and
administer the personal property of the deceased.
(2)
The Judge may if he deems fit, take one surety only where the gross value of the estate does not exceed
N250, 000.00 (Two Hundred and Fifty Thousand Naira) or where a Corporation is proposed as a surety.
(3)
The bond shall be in form of a penalty which is twice the monetary value of the estate of the deceased unless
the Judge deems fit or expedient to reduce the amount.
(4)
The Judge may also in any case direct that more bonds than one shall be given, so as to limit the liability of
any Administrator to such amount as the Court deems reasonable.
4.
(1)
The Judge shall not require a guarantee as a condition of making a grant where it is proposed to make it:
(a)
by virtue of Order 58 Rule 23(e) to a creditor or the personal representative of a creditor or to a person
who has no immediate beneficial interest in the estate of the deceased but may have such an interest in
the event of an accretion to the estate;
(b)
under Order 58 Rule 24, to a person or some of the persons who would, if the person beneficially
entitled to the whole of the estate died intestate be entitled to his estate;
(c)
under Order 57 Rule 11, to the attorney of a person entitled to a grant;
(d)
under Order 57 Rule 12, for the use and benefit of a minor;
(e)
under Order 57 Rule 14, for the use and benefit of a person of mental or physical incapacity who is
incapable of managing his affairs;
(f)
to an applicant who appears to the Judge to be resident elsewhere than in the State; or
(g)
except where the Judge considers that there are special circumstances making it desirable to require a
guarantee.
(2)
Notwithstanding that it is proposed to make a grant as aforesaid, a guarantee shall not be required, except in
special circumstances, on an application for administration where the Applicant or one of the Applicants is
the Administrator-General or a Trust Corporation.
(3)
Every guarantee entered into by a surety for the purpose of the Order shall be in Probate Form 1 with such
variation as circumstances may require.
(4)
Except where the surety is a Corporation, the signature of the surety on every such guarantee shall be attested
by an authorized officer, Commissioner for Oaths or other person authorized by law to administer an oath.
(5)
Unless the Registrar otherwise directs:
(a)
if it is decided to require a guarantee, it shall be given by two sureties, except where the gross value of
the estate does not exceed N250,000.00 (Two Hundred and Fifty Thousand Naira) or a Corporation is
a proposed surety, and in those cases one will suffice;
(b)
no person shall be accepted as a surety unless he is resident in the State;
(c)
no officer of the Judiciary shall be a surety;
(d)
the limit of the liability of the surety or sureties under a guarantee shall be the valued amount of the
estate;
(e)
every surety other than a Corporation, shall justify his eligibility.
(6)
Where the proposed surety is a Corporation, there shall be filed affidavit by the proper officer of the
Corporation to the effect that has power to act as surety and has executed the guarantee in the manner
prescribed by its constitution, and containing sufficient information as to the financial position of the
Corporation to satisfy the Judge that its assets are sufficient to satisfy all claims which may be made against
it under any guarantee which it has given or likely to give.
5.
The Judge may, on being satisfied that the condition of the bond has been broken, assign to some person, and that
person may thereupon sue c the bond in his own name as if it had been originally given to him, and may recover
thereon, as trustee for persons interested, the full amount recoverable in respect of any breach of the bond.
6.
All inquiries a Judge sees fit to make shall be answered to his satisfaction before the issuance of Letters of
Administration. The Judge shall afford as great a facility for the obtaining of Letters of Administration as is
consistent with due regard to the prevention of error and fraud.
7.
(1)
Any person claiming to be a creditor or legatee or the next of kin or one of the next of kin of a deceased, may
apply for and obtain Summons from the Court requiring the Executor or Administrate as the case may be, to
attend Court and show cause why an Order for the administration of the property of the deceased should m be
made.
(2)
On proof of service of the Summons or on appearance of the Executor or Administrator, and on proof of all
such other things, as the Judge may direct, the Judge may, if he deems fit, make an Order for the
administration of the property of the deceased.
(3)
The Judge may make or refuse any such Order or give any special directions in respect of the carriage or
execution of it and where there are applications for such an Order by two or more different persons or classes
of persons, grant the same to such one or more of the Claimants or classes of Claimants, as the Judge deems
fit.
(4)
Where the Judge deems it fit, the service of the Order may subsequently be effected on such persons, and on
such terms, as he may direct.
(5)
Where the Judge makes such an Order or at any time afterward: he may, if he deems fit, make any further or
other Order which may appear requisite to secure the proper collection, recovery for safekeeping and disposal
of the property or any part thereof.
8.
(1)
In a case of intestacy, where the special circumstances of the case require, the Judge may, if he deems fit on
the application of any person having interest in the estate of the deceased, grant Letters of Administration to
an officer of the Court, Consular Officer or to a person in the service of the Government.
(2)
The officer or person so appointed shall act under the direction of the Judge, and shall be indemnified
thereby.
(3)
The Judge shall require and compel him to file in Court the accounts of his administration at intervals not
exceeding 12 months.
9.
(1)
Where a person has died intestate as to his personal estate or has left a Will as to his personal estate but
without having appointed an Executor thereof willing to take Probate or where the Executor shall, at the time
of the death of such person be resident out of jurisdiction, the Judge may, where it appears necessary or
convenient, appoint some person as Administrator of the estate of the deceased or any part thereof.
(2)
Such Administrator shall give such security, if any, as the Judge shall direct and every such Administrator
may be limited as the Judge shall deem fit.
10.
The Judge may direct that any Administrator (with or without the Will annexed) shall receive out of the personal
and real estate of the deceased such reasonable remuneration as he shall deem fit, not exceeding 10% of the income
of the estate:
Provided that where the Judge is satisfied that the administration of the property has required an extra amount of
work he may allow a higher rate of remuneration.
11.
(1)
Where a citizen of any foreign country dies within jurisdiction without leaving within jurisdiction a widower,
widow or next of kin, the Probate Registrar shall collect and secure all moneys and other property belonging
to the deceased, and shall then inform the nearest Consular Officer of such country of the death, and transmit
to him a list of the money and property of the deceased.
(2)
Application may be made to the Court by any such Consular Officer or by any person authorized by him in
writing and under Consular seal, for leave to administer the estate of the deceased, and the Judge may make
such order as to the security for payment of debts and the method of administration as the Judge shall deem
fit, and vary such order when and so often as it is expedient.
12.
(1)
An application to add a personal representative shall be made to the Judge and shall be supported by an
affidavit by the personal Applicant, the consent of the person proposed to be added as personal representative
and such other evidence as the Judge may require,
(2)
On any such application the Judge may direct that a note shall be made on the original grant of the addition
of a further personal representative, or he may impound or revoke the grant or make such Order as the
circumstances of the case may require.
13.
(1)
A grant may be made to any person entitled thereto without notice to other persons entitled in the same
degree.
(2)
A dispute between persons entitled to a grant in the same degree shall be brought by application before the
Judge.
(3)
If an application under this Rule is brought before the Judge, he shall not allow any grant to be sealed until
such application is finally disposed of.
(4)
Unless the Judge otherwise directs, administration shall be granted to a living person in preference to the
personal representative of a deceased person who would, if living, be entitled in the same degree and to a
person not under disability in preference to an infant entitled in the same degree.
14.
(1)
An application to join with a person entitled to a grant of administration, a person entitled in a lower degree,
shall in default of renunciation by all persons entitled in priority to the latter, be made to the Judge and shall
be supported by an affidavit by the person entitled, the consent of the person proposed to be joined as
personal representative and such other evidence as the Judge may require.
(2)
An application to join with a person entitled to a grant of administration, a person having no right to it, shall
be made to the Judge and shall be supported by an affidavit by the person entitled, the consent of the person
proposed to be joined as personal representative and such other evidence as the Judge may require:
Provided that there may, without any such application, be joined with a person entitled to administration
(a)
on the renunciation of all other persons entitled to join in the grant, any kin of the deceased having no
beneficial interest in the estate;
(b)
unless the Judge otherwise directs, any person whom the guardian of a minor may nominate for the
purpose;
(c)
a Trust Corporation.
15.
Nothing in these Rules shall operate to prevent a grant being made to any person to whom a grant may, or may
require to be made under any enactment.
16.
An application for an Order for a grant of special administration where a personal representative resides outside the
State shall be made to the Judge by a Motion.
17.
(1)
Where a surviving spouse who is the sole personal representative of the deceased is entitled to a life interest
in part of the residuary estate and elects to have the life interest redeemed, he may give written notice of the
election to the Registrar by filing a notice in Probate Form 7 with such variations as circumstances may
require.
(2)
A notice filed under this Rule shall be noted on the grant and the record shall be open to inspection.
18.
(1)
A notice to prohibit a grant of administration may be filed in Court.
(2)
Any person who wishes to ensure that no grant is sealed without notice to himself may enter a caveat in the
Registry.
(3)
Any person who wishes to enter a Caveat, in this Rule called "the Caveator", may do so by completing
Probate Form 3 in the appropriate book at the Registry and obtaining an acknowledgement of entry from the
proper officer, or by sending through the post at his own risk a notice in Probate Form 3 to the Registry in
which he wishes the Caveat to be entered.
(4)
Where the Caveat is entered by a Legal Practitioner on behalf of the Caveator the name of the Caveator shall
be stated in Probate Form 4.
(5)
Except as otherwise provided by this Rule, a Caveat shall remain in force for three (3) months from the date
on which it is entered and shall then cease to have effect, without prejudice to the entry of a further Caveat or
Caveats.
(6)
The Registrar shall maintain an index of Caveats entered in the Registry and on receiving an application for a
grant in the Registry he shall cause the index to be searched and shall notify the applicant in the event of any
Caveat having been entered against the sealing of a grant for which application has been made.
(7)
The Registrar shall not allow any grant to be sealed if he has knowledge of an effective Caveat in respect
thereof:
Provided that no Caveat shall operate to prevent the sealing of a grant on the day on which the Caveat is
entered.
(8)
A warning in Probate Form 5 may issue from the Registry against a Caveator at the instance of any person
interested called "the person warning", which shall state his interest and, if he claims under a Will, the date of
the Will, and shall require the Caveator to give particulars of any contrary interest which he may have in the
estate of the deceased and every warning or a copy thereof shall be served on the Caveator.
(9)
A Caveator having an interest contrary to that of the person warning may, within eight (8) days of service of
the warning upon him inclusive of the day of such service or at any time thereafter if no affidavit has been
filed under sub-rule (12) of this Rule, enter an appearance in the Registry by filing Probate Form 6 and
making an entry in the appropriate book, and shall forthwith serve on the person warning a copy of Probate
Form 6 sealed with the seal of the Registry.
(10)
A Caveator who has not entered an appearance to a warning may at any time withdraw his Caveat by giving
notice at the Registry and the Caveat shall then cease to have effect and if he has been warned, the Caveator
shall forthwith give notice of withdrawal of the Caveat to the person warning.
(11)
A Caveator having no interest contrary to that of the person warning but wishing to show cause against the
sealing of a grant to that person may, within eight (8) days of service ofthe warning upon him inclusive of the
day of such service, or at any time thereafter if no affidavit has been filed under subrule (12) of this Rule,
issue and serve a notice, which shall be returnable before the Registrar.
(12)
If the time limited for appearance has expired and the Caveator has not entered an appearance, the person
warning may file in the Registry an affidavit showing that the warning was duly served and that he has not
received a notice under the last foregoing sub-rule, and thereupon the Caveat shall cease to have effect.
(13)
Upon commencement of a Probate action the Probate Registrar shall, if a Caveat is in force, other than a
Caveat entered by the claimant, give to the Caveator notice of the commencement of the action and, upon the
subsequent entry of a caveat at any time when the action is pending, shall likewise notify the Caveator of the
existence of the action.
(14)
Unless the Judge otherwise directs:
(a)
any Caveat in force at the commencement of proceedings by way of citation or motion shall, unless
withdrawn pursuant to sub-rule (10) of this Rule, remain in force until an application for a grant is
made by the person shown to be entitled thereto by the decision of the Court in such proceedings, and
upon such application any Caveat entered by a party who had notice of the proceedings shall cease to
have effect;
(b)
any Caveat in respect of which an appearance to a warning has been entered shall remain in force until
the commencement of a probate action;
(c)
the commencement of a Probate action shall, whether or not any Caveat has been entered, operate to
prevent the sealing of a grant until application for a grant is made by the person shown to be entitled
thereto by the decision ofthe Judge in such action, and upon such application any Caveat entered by a
party who had notice of the action, or by a Caveator who was given notice under sub-rule (13) of this
Rule, shall cease to have effect.
(15) Except with the leave of the Judge, no further Caveat may be entered by or on behalf of any Caveator whose
Caveat has ceased to have effect under sub-rule (12) or (14) of this Rule.
19.
The grant of Letters of Administration under this Order shall be signed by the Registrar on behalf of the Court.
Order 60
Proceedings in Probate and Administration Actions
1.
Suits in respect of Probate or Letters of Administration shall be instituted and carried on as nearly as possible in like
manner and subject to the same rules of procedure as suits in respect of civil claims.
2.
In Probate or Administration actions, the Originating Process shall state whether the Claimant claims as creditor,
executor, administrator, beneficiary, next of kin or in any other capacity.
3.
In Probate or Administration actions, service of a Writ of Summon may by leave of a Judge be allowed out of
Nigeria.
4.
In Probate or Administration actions, a party shall state with regard to every defence which is pleaded, the substance
of the case on which it is intended to rely and further where it is pleaded that the Testator was not of sound mind,
memory and understanding, particulars of any specific instances of delusion shall be delivered before the case is set
down for trial and except by leave of a Judge no evidence shall be given of any other instances at the trial.
5.
In Probate or Administration actions where the Claimant disputes the interest of the Defendant, he shall allege in his
Statement of Claim that he denies the Defendant's interest.
6.
In Probate actions, the party opposing a Will may, with his defence, give notice to the party setting up the Will that
he merely insists upon the Will being proved in solemn form of law and only intends to cross-examine the witnesses
produced in support of the Will, and he shall thereupon be at liberty to do so and shall not in any event be liable to
pay the costs of the other side unless the Judge finds that there was no reasonable ground for opposing the Will.
7.
Every Judgment or order for a general account of the personal estate of a Testator or upon intestacy shall contain a
direction for any inquiry as to what parts of such personal estate are outstanding or un-disposed of, unless the Judge
shall otherwise direct.
8.
Where a person is or has been a party to any proceedings in the capacity of trustee, personal representative or
mortgagee, he shall, unless the Judge otherwise orders, be entitled to the costs of such proceedings in so far as they
are not recovered from or paid by any other person out of the fund held by the trustee or personal representative or
the mortgaged property, as the case may be, and the Judge may otherwise order only on the ground that the trustee,
personal representative or mortgagee has acted unreasonably or, in the case of a trustee or personal representative,
has in substance acted for his own benefit rather than for the benefit of the fund.
9.
Any of the following persons:-
(1)
the Executors or Administrators of a deceased person or any of them;
(2)
the Trustees under any deed or instrument or any of them;
(3)
any person claiming to be interested in the relief sought as creditor, beneficiary, next of kin, heir-at-law of a
deceased person;
(4)
a cestui que trust under the trust of any deed or instrument;
(5)
claiming by assignment or administration otherwise under any such creditor or other person as aforesaid;
may take out an Originating Summons for such relief as listed hereunder:
(a)
any question affecting the rights or interests of the person claiming to be creditor, beneficiary, next of
kin, or heir-at-law or cestui que trust;
(b)
the ascertainment of any class of creditors, beneficiary, next of kin, or others;
(c)
the furnishing of any particular accounts by the Executors or Administrators or Trustees and the
vouching, when necessary, of such Accounts;
(d)
the payment into Court of any money in the hands of the Executors or Administrators or Trustees;
(e)
directing the Executors or Administrators or Trustees to do or abstain from doing any particular act in
their capacity as such executors or administrators or trustees;
(f)
the approval of any sale, purchase, compromise, or other transaction;
(g)
the determination of any question arising in the administration of the estate or trust.
10.
Any of the persons named in Rule 9 of this Order may in like manner apply for and obtain an Order for:
(a)
the administration of the personal or real estate of the deceased;
(b)
the administration of the trust;
(c)
any act to be done or step to be taken which the Judge could have ordered to be done or taken if any such
administration order as aforesaid had previously been made.
11.
The persons to be served with the Originating Summons under Rules 9 and 10 of this Order in the first instance shall
be the following:
(1)
Where the Summons is taken out by an Executor or Administrator or Trustee:
(a)
for the determination of any question under paragraph (a), (c), (f) or (g) of Rule 9 of this Order, the
persons, or one of the persons, whose rights or interests, are sought to be affected;
(b)
for the determination of any question under paragraph (b) of Rule 9 of this Order any member or
alleged member of the class;
(c)
for the determination of any question under paragraph (c) of Rule 9 of this Order, any person
interested in taking such Accounts;
(d)
for the determination of any question under paragraph (d) of Rule 9 of this Order, any person
interested in taking such money;
(e)
for relief under paragraph (a) of Rule 10 of this Order, the residuary legatees, or next of kin, or the
residuary devisees, or heirs, as the case may be;
(f)
for relief under paragraph (b) of Rule 10 of this Order, the cestui que trust;
(g)
if there are more than one Executor or Administrator or Trustee and they do not all concur in taking
out the Originating Summons, those who do not concur.
(2)
Where the Originating Summons is taken out by any person other than the Executors, Administrators
or Trustees, the Executors, Administrators or Trustees, must be served.
12.
The issue of a Summons under Rule 9 of this Order shall not interfere with or control any power or discretion vested
in any Executor, Administrator or Trustee except so far as such interference or control may necessarily be involved
in the particular relief sought.
13.
It shall not be obligatory on the Judge to pronounce or make Judgment or Order, whether on Summons or otherwise
for the administration of any trust or of the estate of any deceased person if the questions between the parties can be
properly determined without such Judgment or Order.
14.
Upon an application for administration or execution of trusts by a creditor or beneficiary under a Will, intestacy, or
deed of trust, where no accounts or insufficient accounts have been rendered, the Judge may, in addition to the
powers already existing:
(a)
Order that the application shall stand over for a certain time, and that the Executors, Administrators or
Trustees in the meantime shall render to the Applicant proper statement of their accounts, with an intimation
that if this is not done they may be made to pay the costs of the proceedings;
(b)
when necessary, to prevent proceedings by other creditors or by persons beneficially interested, make the
usual judgment or order for administration with a proviso that no proceedings are to be taken under such
Judgment or Order without leave of the Judge.
15.
(1)
An application for an Order requiring a person to bring in a Will or to attend for examination may, unless a
Probate action has been commenced, be made to the Court by Originating Summons, which shall be served
on every such person as aforesaid.
(2)
An application for the issue by the Judge of a subpoena to bring in a Will shall be supported by an affidavit
setting out the grounds for the application, and if any person served with the subpoena denies that the Will is
in his possession or control, he may file an affidavit to that effect.
16.
An application for an order for a grant limited to part of an estate may be made to the Judge and shall be supported
by an affidavit stating:
(a)
whether the application is made in respect of the real estate only or any part thereof, or real estate together
with personal estate, or in respect of a trust estate only;
(b)</